Amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer's Disease and Animal Models

Sangram S. Sisodia
Department of Pathology and the Neuropathology Laboratory
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

and

Donald L. Price
Departments of Pathology, Neurology, and Neuroscience
and the Neuropathology Laboratory
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Baltimore, Maryland 21205.


REFERENCES

 

1. Abraham CR, Selkoe DJ, Potter H, Price DL, Cork LC. a1-Antichymotrypsin is present together with the b-protein in monkey brain amyloid deposits. Neuroscience 1989;32:715720.

2. Anderson JP, Esch FS, Keim PS, Sambamurti K, Lieberburg I, Robakis NK. Exact cleavage site of Alzheimer amyloid precursor in neuronal PC-12 cells. Neurosci Lett 1991;128:126128.

3. Bachevalier J, Landis LS, Walker LC, et al. Aged monkeys exhibit behavioral deficits indicative of widespread cerebral dysfunction. Neurobiol Aging 1991;12:99111.

4. Beal MF, Walker LC, Storey E, Segar L, Price DL, Cork LC. Neurotransmitters in neocortex of aged rhesus monkeys. Neurobiol Aging 1991;12:407412.

5. Braak H, Braak E. Alzheimer's disease affects limbic nuclei of the thalamus. Acta Neuropathol 1991;81:261268.

6. Brion J-P. Molecular pathology of Alzheimer amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles. Semin Neurosci 1990;2:89100.

7. Cai X-D, Golde TE, Younkin SG. Release of excess amyloid b protein from a mutant amyloid b protein precursor. Science 1993;259:514516.

8. Chartier-Harlin M-C, Crawford F, Houlden H, et al. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease caused by mutations at codon 717 of the b-amyloid precursor protein gene. Nature 1991;353:844846.

9. Citron M, Oltersdorf T, Haass C, et al. Mutation of the b-amyloid precursor protein in familial Alzheimer's disease increases b-protein production. Nature 1992;360:672674.

10. Cras P, Kawai M, Lowery D, Gonzalez-DeWhitt P, Greenberg B, Perry G. Senile plaque neurites in Alzheimer disease accumulate amyloid precursor protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:75527556.

11. Davies CA, Mann DMA, Sumpter PQ, Yates PO. A quantitative morphometric analysis of the neuronal and synaptic content of the frontal and temporal cortex in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci 1987;78:151164.

12. Esch FS, Keim PS, Beattie EC, et al. Cleavage of amyloid b peptide during constitutive processing of its precursor. Science 1990;248: 11221124.

13. Evans DA, Funkenstein HH, Albert MS, et al. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in a community population of older persons. Higher than previously reported. JAMA 1989;262:25512556.

14. Fukuchi K-i, Kamino K, Deeb SS, Smith AC, Dang T, Martin GM. Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein alters its normal processing and is associated with neurotoxicity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992;182:165173.

15. Glenner GG, Wong CW. Alzheimer's disease: initial report of the purification and characterization of a novel cerebrovascular amyloid protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1984;120:885890.

16. Goate A, Chartier-Harlin M-C, Mullan M, et al. Segregation of a missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene with familial Alzheimer's disease. Nature 1991;349:704706.

17. Goedert M, Sisodia SS, Price DL. Neurofibrillary tangles and b-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1991;1:441447.

18. Golde TE, Estus S, Usiak M, Younkin LH, Younkin SG. Expression of b amyloid protein precursor mRNAs: recognition of a novel alternatively spliced form and quantitation in Alzheimer's disease using PCR. Neuron 1990;4:253267.

19. Golde TE, Estus S, Younkin LH, Selkoe DJ, Younkin SG. Processing of the amyloid protein precursor to potentially amyloidogenic derivatives. Science 1992;255:728730.

20. Goldman-Rakic PS, Brown RM. Regional changes of monoamines in cerebral cortex and subcortical structures of aging rhesus monkeys. Neuroscience 1981;6:177187.

21. Haass C, Koo EH, Mellon A, Hung AY, Selkoe DJ. Targeting of cell-surface b-amyloid precursor protein to lysosomes: alternative processing into amyloid-bearing fragments. Nature 1992;357:500503.

22. Hardy J, Mullan M. In search of the soluble. Nature 1992;359:268269.

23. Hendriks L, van Duijn CM, Cras P, et al. Presenile dementia and cerebral hemorrhage linked to a mutation at codon 692 of the b-amyloid precursor protein gene. Nature Genet 1992;1:218221.

24. Hyman BT, Van Hoesen GW, Kromer LJ, Damasio AR. Perforant pathway changes and the memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 1986;20:472481.

25. Johnson SA, McNeill T, Cordell B, Finch CE. Relation of neuronal APP-751/APP-695 mRNA ratio and neuritic plaque density in Alzheimer's disease. Science 1990;248:854857.

26. Jucker M, Walker LC, Martin LJ, Kitt CA, Kleinman HK, Ingram DK, Price DL. Age-associated inclusions in normal and transgenic mouse brain. Science 1992;255:14431445.

27. Kammesheidt A, Boyce FM, Spanoyannis AF, et al. Deposition of b/A4 immunoreactivity and neuronal pathology in transgenic mice expressing the carboxyterminal fragment of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:1085710861.

28. Kang J, Lemaire H-G, Unterbeck A, et al. The precursor of Alzheimer's disease amyloid A4 protein resembles a cell-surface receptor. Nature 1987;325:733736.

29. Kawabata S, Higgins GA, Gordon JW. Amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss in brains of transgenic mice overexpressing a C-terminal fragment of human amyloid precursor protein. Nature 1991;354:476478.

30. Kemper T. Neuroanatomical and neuropathological changes in normal aging and in dementia. In: Albert ML, ed. Clinical neurology of aging. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984;952.

31. Kitaguchi N, Takahashi Y, Tokushima Y, Shiojiri S, Ito H. Novel precursor of Alzheimer's disease amyloid protein shows protease inhibitory activity. Nature 1988;331:530532.

32. Kitt CA, Price DL, Struble RG, et al. Evidence for cholinergic neurites in senile plaques. Science 1984;226:14431445.

33. König G, Salbaum JM, Wiestler O, et al. Alternative splicing of the b/A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease in cortex of control and Alzheimer's disease patients. Mol Brain Res 1991;9:259262.

34. Koo EH, Abraham CR, Potter H, Cork LC, Price DL. Developmental expression of a1-antichymotrypsin in brain may be related to astrogliosis. Neurobiol Aging 1991;12:495501.

35. Koo EH, Sisodia SS, Archer DR, et al. Precursor of amyloid protein in Alzheimer disease undergoes fast anterograde axonal transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87:15611565.

36. Lamb BT, Sisodia SS, Lawler AM, et al. Introduction and expression of the 400 kilobase precursor amyloid protein gene in transgenic mice. Nature Genetics 1993;5:2230.

37. Lee VM-Y, Balin BJ, Otvos L Jr, Trojanowski JQ. A68: a major subunit of paired helical filaments and derivatized forms of normal tau. Science 1991;251:675678.

38. Martin LJ, Sisodia SS, Koo EH, et al. Amyloid precursor protein in aged nonhuman primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:14611465.

39. Masters CL, Simms G, Weinman NA, Multhaup G, McDonald BL, Beyreuther K. Amyloid plaque core protein in Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985;82:42454249.

40. McGeer PL, Akiyama H, Itagaki S, McGeer EG. Activation of the classical complement pathway in brain tissue of Alzheimer patients. Neurosci Lett 1989;107:341346.

41. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology 1984;34:939944.

42. Mullan M, Crawford F, Axelman K, et al. A pathogenic mutation for probable Alzheimer's disease in the APP gene at the N-terminus of b-amyloid. Nature Genet 1992;1:345347.

43. Nishimoto I, Okamoto T, Matsuura Y, et al. Alzheimer amyloid protein precursor complexes with brain GTP-binding protein Go. Nature 1993;362:7579.

44. Palmert MR, Golde TE, Cohen ML, et al. Amyloid protein precursor messenger RNAs: differential expression in Alzheimer's disease. Science 1988;241:10801084.

45. Palmert MR, Podlisny MB, Witker DS, et al. The b-amyloid protein precursor of Alzheimer disease has soluble derivatives found in human brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86:63386342.

46. Ponte P, Gonzalez-DeWhitt P, Schilling J, et al. A new A4 amyloid mRNA contains a domain homologous to serine proteinase inhibitors. Nature 1988;331:525532.

47. Quon D, Wang Y, Catalano R, Scardina JM, Murakami K, Cordell B. Formation of b-amyloid protein deposits in brains of transgenic mice. Nature 1991;352:239241.

48. Rumble B, Retallack R, Hilbich C, et al. Amyloid A4 protein and its precursor in Down's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med 1989;320:14461452.

49. Scheff SW, Price DA. Synapse loss in the temporal lobe in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 1993;33:190199.

50. Schellenberg GD, Bird TD, Wijsman EM, et al. Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's disease locus on chromosome 14. Science 1992;258:668671.

51. Selkoe DJ, Bell DS, Podlisny MB, Price DL, Cork LC. Conservation of brain amyloid proteins in aged mammals and humans with Alzheimer's disease. Science 1987;235:873877.

52. Seubert P, Oltersdorf T, Lee MG, et al. Secretion of b-amyloid precursor protein cleaved at the amino terminus of the b-amyloid peptide. Nature 1993;361:260263.

53. Shoji M, Golde TE, Ghiso J, et al. Production of the Alzheimer amyloid b protein by normal proteolytic processing. Science 1992;258:126129.

54. Sisodia SS, Koo EH, Beyreuther K, Unterbeck A, Price DL. Evidence that b-amyloid protein in Alzheimer's disease is not derived by normal processing. Science 1990;248:492495.

55. Sisodia SS, Koo EH, Hoffman PN, Perry G, Price DL. Identification and transport of full-length amyloid precursor proteins in rat peripheral nervous system. J Neurosci 1993;13:31363142.

56. Slunt HH, Thinakaran G, Von Koch C, Lo ACY, Tanzi RE, Sisodia SS. Expression of a ubiquitous, cross-reactive homologue of the mouse b-amyloid precursor protein (APP). J Biol Chem 1994; 269:26372644.

57. St George-Hyslop P, Haines J, Rogaev E, et al. Genetic evidence for a novel familial Alzheimer's disease locus on chromosome 14. Nature Genet 1992;2:330334.

58. Strittmatter WJ, Saunders AM, Schmechel D, et al. Apolipoprotein E: high-avidity binding to b-amyloid and increased frequency of type 4 allele in late-onset familial Alzheimer disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:19771981.

59. Struble RG, Price DL Jr, Cork LC, Price DL. Senile plaques in cortex of aged normal monkeys. Brain Res 1985;361:267275.

60. Terry RD, Masliah E, Salmon DP, et al. Physical basis of cognitive alterations in Alzheimer's disease: synapse loss is the major correlate of cognitive impairment. Ann Neurol 1991;30:572580.

61. Tigges J, Gordon TP, McClure HM, Hall EC, Peters A. Survival rate and life span of rhesus monkeys at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center. Am J Primatol 1988;15:263273.

62. Vogels OJM, Broere CAJ, Ter Laak HJ, Ten Donkelaar HJ, Nieuwenhuys R, Schultz BPM. Cell loss and shrinkage in the nucleus basalis Meynert complex in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 1990;11:313.

63. Walker LC, Kitt CA, Cork LC, Struble RG, Dellovade TL, Price DL. Multiple transmitter systems contribute neurites to individual senile plaques. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1988;47:138144.

64. Walker LC, Masters C, Beyreuther K, Price DL. Amyloid in the brains of aged squirrel monkeys. Acta Neuropathol 1990;80:381387.

65. Wang R, Meschia JF, Cotter RJ, Sisodia SS. Secretion of the b/A4 amyloid precursor protein. Identification of a cleavage site in cultured mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 1991;266:1696016964.

66. Wasco W, Gurubhagavatula S, Paradis MD, et al. Isolation and characterization of APLP2 encoding a homologue of the Alzheimer's associated amyloid b protein precursor. Nature Genet 1993;5:9599.

67. Wegiel J, Wisniewski HM. The complex of microglial cells and amyloid star in three-dimensional reconstruction. Acta Neuropathol 1990;81:116124.

68. Weidemann A, König G, Bunke D, et al. Identification, biogenesis, and localization of precursors of Alzheimer's disease A4 amyloid protein. Cell 1989;57:115126.

69. Wenk GL, Pierce DJ, Struble RG, Price DL, Cork LC. Age-related changes in multiple neurotransmitter systems in the monkey brain. Neurobiol Aging 1989;10:1119.

70. Whitehouse PJ, Price DL, Struble RG, Clark AW, Coyle JT, DeLong MR. Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia: loss of neurons in the basal forebrain. Science 1982;215:12371239.

71. Wirak DO, Bayney R, Ramabhadran TV, et al. Deposits of amyloid b protein in the central nervous system of transgenic mice. Science 1991;253:323325.

72. Wisniewski HM, Terry RD. Morphology of the aging brain, human and animal. Prog Brain Res 1973;40:167186.

73. Wisniewski HM, Wegiel J, Wang KC, Lach B. Ultrastructural studies of the cells forming amyloid in the cortical vessel wall in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol 1992;84:117127.

Back to Chapter

published 2000