Neuroendocrinology of Mood Disorders

Florian Holsboer
Clinical Institute
Max-Planck-Institute for Psychiatry
D-80804 Munich, Germany.


1. Amsterdam JD, Winokur A, Abelman E, Lucki I, Rickels K. Cosyntropin (ACTH 1-24) stimulation test in depressed patients and healthy subjects. Am J Psychiatry 1983;140:907909.

2. Amsterdam JD, Maislin G. Hormonal responses during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in manic-depressed, unipolar depressed, and healthy control subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:541548.

3. Åström C, Christensen L, Gjerris F, Trojaborg W. Sleep in acromegaly before and after treatment with adenomectomy. Neuroendocrinology 1991;53:328331.

4. Barbarino A, Corsello SM, della Casa S, et al. Corticotropinreleasing hormone inhibition of growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone release in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:13681374.

5. Bartalena L, Placidi GF, Martino E, et al. Nocturnal serum thyrotropin (TSH) surge and the TSH response to TSH-releasing hormone: dissociated behavior in untreated depressives. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:650655.

6. Baulieu EE, Robel P. Neurosteroids: a new brain function? J Steroid Biochem 1990;37:395403.

7. Baumgartner A, Graf KK, Kerten I, Meinold H. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in psychiatric patients and healthy subjects: parts 14. Psychiatry Res 1988;24:271332.

8. Born J, de Kloet ER, Wenz H, Kern W, Fehm HL. Gluco- and antimineralocorticoid effects on human sleep: a role of central corticosteroid receptors. Am J Physiol 1991;260:E183E188.

9. Born J, Kellner C, Uthgenannt D, Kern W, Fehm HL. Vasopressin regulates human sleep by reducing rapid-eye-movement sleep. Am J Physiol 1992;262:E295E300.

10. Brady LS, Whitfield HJ Jr, Fox RJ, Gold PW, Herkenham M. Long-term antidepressant administration alters corticotropin-releasing hormone, tyrosine hydroxylase, and mineralocorticoid receptor gene expression in rat brain. J Clin Invest 1991;87:831837.

11. Butler PD, Weiss JM, Stout JC, Nemeroff CB. Corticotropin-releasing factor produces fear-enhancing and behavioral-activating effects following infusion into the locus coeruleus. J Neurosci 1990;10: 176183.

12. Carroll BJ. The dexamethasone suppression test for melancholia. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140:292304.

13. de Goeij DCE, Jezova D, Tilders FJH. Repeated stress enhances vasopressin synthesis in corticotropin releasing factor neurons in the paraventricular nucleus. Brain Res 1992;577:165168.

14. de Kloet ER. Brain corticosteroid receptor balance and homeostatic control. Front Neuroendocrinol 1991;12:95164.

15. Duval F, Macher JP, Mokrani MC. Difference between evening and morning thyrotropin responses to protirelin in major depressive episode. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990;47:443448.

16. Ehlers CL, Reed TK, Henriksen SJ. Effects of corticotropinreleasing factor and growth hormone-releasing factor on sleep and activity in rats. Neuroendocrinology 1986;42:467474.

17. Evans RM, Birnberg NC, Rosenfeld MG. Glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones transcriptionally regulate growth hormone gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982;79:76597663.

18. Evans RM, Arriza JL. A molecular framework for the actions of glucocorticoid hormones in the nervous system. Neuron 1989;2: 11051112.

19. Fink G, Dow RC, Casley D, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a physiological inhibitor of ACTH release: evidence from immunoneutralization in vivo. J Endocrinol 1991;131:R912.

20. Flood JF, Morley JE, Roberts E. Memory-enhancing effects in male mice of pregnenolone and steroids metabolically derived from it. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:15671571.

21. Garrick NA, Hill JL, Szele FG, Tomai TP, Gold PW, Murphy DL. Corticotropin-releasing factor: a marked circadian rhythm in primate cerebrospinal fluid peaks in the evening and is inversely related to the cortisol circadian rhythm. Endocrinology 1987; 121:13291334.

22. Geracioti TD Jr, Orth DN, Ekhator NN, Blumenkopf B, Loosen PT. Serial cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone concentrations in healthy and depressed humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74:13251330.

23. Giustina A, Girelli A, Doga M, et al. Pyridostigmine blocks the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulated growth hormone secretion in normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:580584.

24. Hauser P, Zametkin AJ, Martinez P, et al. Attention deficithyperactivity disorder in people with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone. N Engl J Med 1993;328:9971001.

25. Heuser I, Wark HJ, Keul J, Holsboer F. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function in elderly endurance athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:485488.

26. Holsboer F, Wiedemann K, Boll E. Shortened dexamethasone half-life in depressed dexamethasone nonsuppressors. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:813815.

27. Holsboer F. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. In: Paykel ES, ed. Handbook of Affective Disorders. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1992:267287.

28. Holsboer F, Gerken A, von Bardeleben U, et al. Human corticotropin-releasing hormone in depression. Biol Psychiatry 1986;21: 609611.

29. Holsboer F, von Bardeleben U, Steiger A. Effects of intravenous corticotropin-releasing hormone upon sleep-related growth hormone surge and sleep EEG in man. Neuroendocrinology 1988;48: 3238.

30. Holsboer F, Spengler D, Heuser I. The role of corticotropinreleasing hormone in the pathogenesis of Cushing's disease, anorexia nervosa, alcoholism, affective disorders and dementia. Prog Brain Res 1992;93:385417.

31. Holsboer-Trachsler E, Stohler R, Hatzinger M. Repeated administration of the combined dexamethasone/hCRH stimulation test during treatment of depression. Psychiatry Res 1991;38:163171.

32. Huhn WC, Hartman ML, Pezzoli SS, Thorner MO. Twenty-four-hour growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide (GHRP) infusion enhances pulsatile GH secretion and specifically attenuates the response to a subsequent GHRP bolus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76:12021208.

33. Joffe RT, Singer W. The effect of tricyclic antidepressants on basal thyroid hormone levels in depressed patients. Pharmacopsychiatry 1990;23:6769.

34. Kellner M, Wiedemann K, Holsboer F. ANF inhibits the CRH-stimulated secretion of ACTH and cortisol in man. Life Sci 1992;50:18351842.

35. Krishnan KRR, Manepalli AN, Ritchie CJ, et al. Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulation test in depression. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:9092.

36. Krishnan KRR, Ritchie JC, Saunders W, Wilson W, Nemeroff CB, Carroll BJ. Nocturnal and early morning secretion of ACTH and cortisol in humans. Biol Psychiatry 1990;28:4757.

37. Lesch KP, Laux G, Pfüller H, Erb A, Beckmann H. Growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone in depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:12781281.

38. Lesch KP, Aulakh CS, Tolliver TJ, Hill JL, Murphy DL. Regulation of G proteins by chronic antidepressant drug treatment in rat brain: tricyclics but not clorgyline increase Goa subunits. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;207:361364.

39. Lima L, Arce V, Diaz MJ, Tresguerres JAF, Devesa J. Clonidine pretreatment modifies the growth hormone secretory pattern induced by short-term continuous GRF infusion in normal man. Clin Endocrinol 1991;35:129135.

40. Majewska MD. Neurosteroids: endogenous bimodal modulators of the GABAA receptor. Mechanism of action and physiological significance. Prog Neurobiol 1992;38:379395.

41. Mason GA, Walker CH, Prange AJ Jr. L-Triiodothyronine: is this peripheral hormone a central neurotransmitter? Neuropsychopharmacology 1993;8:253258.

42. Matussek N, Ackenheil M, Hippius H, et al. Effect of clonidine on growth hormone release in psychiatric patients and controls. Psychiatry Res 1980;2:2536.

43. Mendlewicz J, Linkowski P, Kerkhofs M, et al. Diurnal hypersecretion of growth hormone in depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;60:505517.

44. Murphy BEP. Steroids and depression. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1991;38:537559.

45. Nemeroff CB, Simon JS, Haggerty JJ, Evans DL. Antithyroid antibodies in depressed patients. Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:840843.

46. Nemeroff CB, Bissette G, Akil H, Fink M. Neuropeptide concentrations in the CSF of depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Br J Psychiatry 1991;158:5963.

47. Nemeroff CB, Krishnan KRR, Reed D, Leder R, Beam C, Dunnick R. Adrenal gland enlargement in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:384387.

48. Paul SM, Purdy RH. Neuroactive steroids. FASEB J 1992;6:23112322.

49. Pepin MC, Beaulieu S, Barden N. Antidepressants regulate glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA concentrations in primary neuronal cultures. Mol Brain Res 1989;6:7783.

50. Pepin MC, Pothier F, Barden N. Impaired type II glucocorticoid-receptor function in mice bearing antisense RNA transgene. Nature 1992;355:725728.

51. Poland RE, Hanada K, Rubin RT. Relationship of nocturnal plasma bioactive and immunoactive ACTH concentrations to cortisol secretion in normal men. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1989;121:857865.

52. Post M. Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:9991010.

53. Potter E, Behan DP, Linton EA, Lowry PJ, Sawchenko PE, Vale WW. The central distribution of a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-binding protein predicts multiple sites and modes of interaction with CRF. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:41924196.

54. Pralong FP, Miell JP, Corder R, Gaillard RC. Dexamethasone treatment in man induces changes in 24-hour growth hormone (GH) secretion profile without altering total GH released. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:11911196.

55. Prange AJ Jr, Garbutt JC, Loosen PT. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in affective disorders. In: Meltzer HY, ed. Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress. New York: Raven Press, 1987:629636.

56. Reul JMHM, Stec I, Söder M, Holsboer F. Chronic treatment of rats with the antidepressant amitriptyline attenuates the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. Endocrinology 1993;133:312320.

57. Rubinow DR, Gold PW, Post RM, et al. CSF somatostatin in affective illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:409412.

58. Rupprecht R, Lesch KP, Müller U, Beck G, Beckmann H, Schulte HM. Blunted adrenocorticotropin but normal b-endorphin release after depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989;69:600603.

59. Rupprecht R, Reul JMHM, Trapp T, et al. Progesterone receptor-mediated effects of neuroactive steroids. Neuron 1993;11:523530.

60. Saito N, Guitart X, Hayward M, Tallman JF, Duman RS, Nestler EJ. Corticosterone differentially regulates the expression of Gsa messenger RNA and protein in rat cerebral cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86:39063910.

61. Sapolsky RM, Zola-Morgan S, Squire LR. Inhibition of glucocorticoid secretion by the hippocampal formation in the primate. J Neurosci 1991;11:36953704.

62. Schlegel S, von Bardeleben U, Wiedemann K, Frommberger U, Holsboer F. Computerized brain tomography measures compared with spontaneous and suppressed plasma cortisol levels in major depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1989;14:209216.

63. Siever LJ, Trestman RL, Coccaro EF, et al. The growth hormone response to clonidine in acute and remitted depressed male patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 1992;6:165177.

64. Sloviter RS, Valiquette G, Abrams GM, et al. Selective loss of hippocampal granule cells in the mature rat brain after adrenalectomy. Science 1989;243:535538.

65. Spengler D, Rupprecht R, Phi Van L, Holsboer F. Identification and characterisation of a 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element in the human corticotropin-releasing hormone gene promoter. Mol Endocrinol 1992;6:19311941.

66. Spengler D, Waeber C, Pantaloni C, et al. Differential signal transduction patterns of five splice variants of the PACAP receptor. Nature 1993;365:170175.

67. Steiger A, von Bardeleben U, Herth T, Holsboer F. Sleep-EEG and nocturnal secretion of cortisol and growth hormone in male patients with endogenous depression before treatment and after recovery. J Affective Disord 1989;16:189195.

68. Steiger A, Guldner J, Hemmeter U, Rothe B, Wiedemann K, Holsboer F. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin on sleep EEG and nocturnal hormone secretion in male controls. Neuroendocrinology 1992;56:566573.

69. Steiger A, Trachsel L, Guldner J, et al. Neurosteroid pregnenolone induces sleep-EEG changes in man compatible with inverse agonistic GABAA receptor modulation. Brain Res 1993;615:267274.

70. Steiger A, Rupprecht R, Spengler D, et al. Functional properties of deoxycorticosterone and spironolactone: molecular characterization and effects on sleep-endocrine activity. J Psychiatr Res 1993;27: 275284.

71. Stein MB, Uhde TW. Triiodothyronine potentiation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in patients with panic disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1990;28:10611064.

72. Stokes PE, Pick GR, Stoll PM, Nunn WD. Pituitary-adrenal function in depressed patients: resistence to dexamethasone suppression. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:271281.

73. Suri D, Hindmarsh PC, Brain CE, Pringle PJ, Brook CGD. The interaction between clonidine and growth hormone releasing hormone in the stimulation of growth hormone secretion in man. Clin Endocrinol 1990;33:399406.

74. Valentino RJ, Foote SL, Aston-Jones G. Corticotropin-releasing factor activates noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus. Brain Res 1983;270:363367.

75. Veldhuis JD, Lizarralde G, Iranmanesh A. Divergent effects of short term glucocorticoid excess on the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74:96102.

76. Voderholzer U, Laakmann G, Hinz A, et al. Dependency of growth hormone (GH) stimulation following releasing hormones on the spontaneous 24-hour GH secretion in healthy male and female subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1993;18:365381.

77. von Bardeleben U, Holsboer F. Cortisol response to a combined dexamethasone-human corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in patients with depression. J Neuroendocrinol 1989;1:485488.

78. von Bardeleben U, Holsboer F. Effect of age on the cortisol response to human corticotropin-releasing hormone in depressed patients with dexamethasone. Biol Psychiatry 1991;29:10421050.

79. Wehrenberg WB, Janowski BA, Piering AW, Culler F, Jones KL. Glucocorticoids: potent inhibitors and stimulators of growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology 1990;126:32003203.

80. Wiedemann K, von Bardeleben U, Holsboer F. Influence of human corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin upon spontaneous growth hormone secretion. Neuroendocrinology 1991;54:462468.

81. Young EA, Haskett RF, Murphy-Weinberg V, Watson SJ, Huda A. Loss of glucocorticoid fast feedback in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991;48:693699.

82. Young EA, Kotun J, Haskett RF, et al. Dissociation between pituitary and adrenal suppression to dexamethasone in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50:395403.

Back To Chapter

published 2000