Figure 1
A schematic diagram of the interactions between the brain and components of the endocrine and immune systems. The ability of the brain to alter immune system function by a variety of endocrine pathways and the autonomic nervous system is emphasized, and the effects of peptides and cytokines produced by the immune system on immune cells and the brain is indicated. Abbreviations : CRF, corticotropin-releasing factor; CS, corticosteroids; Enk, enkephalins; Epi, epinephrine; GH, growth hormone; I, immunocytes; NE, norepinephrine; NPY, neuropeptide Y; SP, substance P; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.
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published 2000