Table 1.  Maternal "hidden regulators" of infant physiology and behaviora

Maternal stimulus
Infant response Reference
Passive contact (olfactory/thermal) Increase activity, decrease corticosterone, vocalization


Tactile stimulation (vigorous stroking) Increase growth hormone, ODC, decrease activity

52, 53

Ingestion (milk) Increase sucking, heart rate, O2 consumption


a Modified from ref. 1.
ODC, ornithine decarboxylase.

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published 2000