Table 1:  Some Mammalian Neuropeptides and Neuropeptide Families

Hypothalamic hormones

Oxytocin (9 amino acid residues, a.a.r.)

Vasopressin (9 a.a.r.)

Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) (41 a.a.r.)

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) (44 a.a.r.)

Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) (10 a.a.r.)

Somatostatin growth hormone release inhibiting hormone (14 a.a.r. plus several forms)

Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) (3 a.a.r.)


Neurokinin a (substance K) (10 a.a.r.)

Neurokinin b (10 a.a.r.)

Neuropeptide K (36 a.a.r.)

Substance P (11 a.a.r.)

Opioid peptides

b-endorphin (30 a.a.r.)

Dynorphin (17 a.a.r. and other forms)

Met- and leu-enkephalin (5 a.a.r.)

NPY and related peptides

Neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) (36 a.a.r.)

Pancreatic polypeptide (36 a.a.r)

Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) (36 a.a.r.)

VIP-glucagon family

Glucogen-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (29 a.a.r.)

Peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) (27 a.a.r.)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) (27 or 38 a.a.r.)

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) (28 a.a.r.)

Other peptides

Brain natriuretic peptide (32 a.a.r.)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (a- and b-form) (37 a.a.r.)

Cholecystokinin (CCK) (8 a.a.r. and other forms)

Galanin (29 or 30 a.a.r.)

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin (37 a.a.r)

Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) (19 a.a.r.)

Melanocortins (ACTH, a-MSH and others)

Neuropeptide FF (F8Fa) (8a.a.r)

Neurotensin (13 a.a.r.)

Parathyroid hormone related protein (34 or 37 a.a.r.)

‘Novel’ neuropeptides

Agouti gene-related protein (AGRP) (131 a.a.r.)

Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART)/peptide

Endomorphin-1 and -2 (both 4 a.a.r.)

5-HT-moduline (4 a.a.r.)

Hypocretins/orexins (29 or 39 a.a.r.)

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (17 a.a.r.)

Nocistatin (17 a.a.r.)

Prolactin releasing peptide (20 or 31 a.a.r.)

Secretoneurin (33 a.a.r.)

Urocortin (40 a.a.r.; 45% sequence identity with CRH)

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published 2000