Serotonin and Behavior

A General Hypothesis

Barry L. Jacobs and Casimir A. Fornal
Program in Neuroscience
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08544.


1. Aghajanian GK. Feedback regulation of central monoaminergic neurons: evidence from single cell recording studies. In: Youdim MBH, Lovenberg W, Sharman DR, Lagnado JR, eds. Essays in neurochemistry and neuropharmacology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978;1–32.

2. Auerbach S, Fornal C, Jacobs BL. Response of serotonin-containing neurons in nucleus raphe magnus to morphine, noxious stimuli, and periaqueductal gray stimulation in freely moving cats. Exp Neurol 1985;88:609–628.

3. Barbeau H, Rossignol S. The effects of serotonergic drugs on the locomotor pattern and on cutaneous reflexes of the adult chronic spinal cat. Brain Res 1990;514:55–67.

4. Barbeau H, Rossignol S. Initiation and modulation of the locomotor pattern in the adult chronic spinal cat by noradrenergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic drugs. Brain Res 1991;546:250–260.

5. Bieger D. Role of bulbar serotonergic neurotransmission in the initiation of swallowing in the rat. Neuropharmacology 1981; 20:1073–1083.

6. Blomqvist A, Broman J. Serotonergic innervation of the dorsal column nuclei and its relation to cytoarchitectonic subdivisions: an immunohistochemical study in cats and monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). J Comp Neurol 1993;327:584–596.

7. Bowker RM, Morrison AR. The startle reflex and PGO spikes. Brain Res 1976;102:185–190.

8. Chapin JK. Modulation of cutaneous sensory transmission during movement: possible mechanisms and biological significance. In: Wise SP, ed. Higher brain functions: recent explorations of the brain's emergent properties. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987;181–209.

9. Chapman CE, Jiang W, Lamarre Y. Modulation of lemniscal input during conditioned arm movements in the monkey. Exp Brain Res 1989;72:316–334.

10. Foote SL, Morrison JH. Extrathalamic modulation of cortical function. Annu Rev Neurosci 1987;10:67–95.

11. Fornal CA, Litto WJ, Morilak DA, et al. Single-unit responses of serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus neurons to environmental heating and pyrogen administration in freely moving cats. Exp Neurol 1987;98:388–403.

12. Fornal CA, Litto WJ, Morilak DA, et al. Single-unit responses of serotonergic neurons to glucose and insulin administration in behaving cats. Am J Physiol 1989;257:R1345–R1353.

13. Fornal CA, Litto WJ, Morilak DA, et al. Single-unit responses of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons to vasoactive drug administration in freely moving cats. Am J Physiol 1990;259:R963–R972.

14. Greist JH, Klein MH, Eischens RR, Faris J, Gurman AS, Morgan WP. Running as treatment for depression. Compr Psychiatry 1979;20:41–54.

15. Grillner S, Wallen P, Brodin L, Lansner A. Neuronal network generating locomotor behavior in lamprey: circuitry, transmitters, membrane properties, and simulation. Annu Rev Neurosci 1991;14:169–199.

16. Guyton AC. Textbook of medical physiology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1981;344–346.

17. Harris-Warrick RM. Chemical modulation of central pattern generators. In: Cohen AH, ed. Neural control of rhythmic movements in vertebrates. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988;285–331.

18. Harris-Warrick RM, Cohen AH. Serotonin modulates the central pattern generator for locomotion in the isolated lamprey spinal cord. J Exp Biol 1985;116:27–46.

19. Hounsgaard J, Hultborn H, Jesperson B, Kiehn O. Bistability of a-motoneurons in the decerebrate cat and in the acute spinal cat after intravenous 5-hydroxytryptophan. J Physiol 1988;405:345–367.

20. Jacobs BL. An animal behavior model for studying central serotonergic synapses. Life Sci 1976;19:777–785.

21. Jacobs BL. Locus coeruleus neuronal activity in behaving animals. In: Heal DJ, Marsden CA, eds. The pharmacology of noradrenaline in the central nervous system. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990;248–265.

22. Jacobs BL, Azmitia EC. Structure and function of the brain serotonin system. Physiol Rev 1992;72:165–229.

23. Jacobs BL, Fornal CA. Activity of brain serotonergic neurons in the behaving animal. Pharmacol Rev 1991;43:563–578.

24. Jacobs BL, Fornal CA. 5-HT and motor control: a hypothesis. Trends Neurosci 1993;16:346–352.

25. Jacobs BL, Metzler CW, Fornal CA. Suppression of 5-HT neuronal activity during orientation in awake cats. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1993;19:743.

26. Jouvet M, Delorme F. Locus coeruleus et sommeil paradoxal. C R Soc Biol 1965;159:895–899.

27. Katakura N, Chandler SH. An iontophoretic analysis of the pharmacologic mechanisms responsible for trigeminal motoneuronal discharge during masticatory-like activity in the guinea pig. J Neurophysiol 1990;63:356–369.

28. Kayama Y, Shimada S, Hishikawa Y, Ogawa T. Effects of stimulating the dorsal raphe nucleus of the rat on neuronal activity in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Brain Res 1989;489:1–11.

29. Kravitz EA. Hormonal control of behavior: amines and the biasing of behavioral output in lobsters. Science 1989;241:1775–1781.

30. Kupfermann I, Weiss KR. The role of serotonin in arousal and feeding behavior of Aplysia. In: Jacobs BL, Gelperin A, eds. Serotonin neurotransmission and behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981;255–287.

31. LeBars D. Serotonin and pain. In: Osborne NN, Hamon M, eds. Neuronal serotonin. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988;171–229.

32. Lent CM. Serotonergic modulation of the feeding behavior of the medicinal leech. Brain Res Bull 1985;14:643–655.

33. Ma PM, Beltz BS, Kravitz EA. Serotonin-containing neurons in lobsters: their role as gain-setters in postural control mechanisms. J Neurophysiol 1992;68:36–54.

34. Mahowald MH, Schenck CH. REM sleep behavior disorder. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1989;389–401.

35. Marrosu F, Fornal CA, Tada K, Metzler CW, Jacobs BL. 5-HT1A autoreceptor agonists induce hippocampal rhythmic slow activity (RSA) in freely moving cats. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1991;17:1437.

36. McCall RB, Aghajanian GK. Serotonergic facilitation of facial motoneuron excitation. Brain Res 1979;169:11–27.

37. McCall RB, Clement ME. Identification of serotonergic and sympathetic neurons in medullary raphe nuclei. Brain Res 1989;477:172–182.

38. McCormick DA. Neurotransmitter actions in the thalamus and cerebral cortex and their role in neuromodulation of thalamocortical activity. Prog Neurobiol 1992;39:337–388.

39. McGinty DJ, Harper RM. Dorsal raphe neurons: depression of firing during sleep in cats. Brain Res 1976;101:569–575.

40. McGowan RW, Pierce EF, Jordan D. Mood alterations with a single bout of physical activity. Percep Mot Skills 1991;72:1203–1209.

41. McNeil JK, LeBlanc EM, Joyner M. The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in the moderately depressed elderly. Psychol Aging 1991;6(3):487–488.

42. Mitchell GS, Sloan HE, Jiang C, Miletic V, Hayashi F, Lipski J. 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) augments spontaneous and evoked phrenic nerve discharge in spinalized rats. Neurosci Lett 1992;141:75–78.

43. Nusbaum MP, Kristan WB. Swim initiation in the leech by serotonin-containing interneurons, cells 21 and 61. J Exp Biol 1986;122: 277–302.

44. Pappas GP, Golin S, Meyer DL. Reducing symptoms of depression with exercise. Psychosomatics 1990;31:112–113.

45. Parent A. The anatomy of serotonin-containing neurons across phylogeny. In: Jacobs BL, Gelperin A, eds. Serotonin neurotransmission and behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981;3–34.

46. Paulus MP, Geyer MA. The effects of MDMA and other methylenedioxy-substituted phenylalkylamines on the structure of rat locomotor activity. Neuropsychopharmacology 1992;7:15–31.

47. Potrebic S, Fields HL, Mason P. Serotonin immunocytochemistry of physiologically identified neurons in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1992;18:683.

48. Ribeiro-do-Valle LE, Fornal CA, Litto WJ, et al. Serotonergic dorsal raphe unit activity related to feeding/grooming behaviors in cats. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1989;15:1283.

49. Ribeiro-do-Valle LE, Metzler CW, Jacobs BL. Facilitation of masseter EMG and masseteric (jaw closure) reflex by serotonin in behaving cats. Brain Res 1991;550:197–204.

50. Ristine LA, Spear LP. Is there a "serotonergic syndrome" in neonatal rat pups? Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1985;22:265–269.

51. Rogawski MA, Aghajanian GK. Norepinephrine and serotonin: opposite effects on the activity of lateral geniculate neurons evoked by optic pathway stimulation. Exp Neurol 1980;69:678–694.

52. Roth DL, Holmes DS. Influence of aerobic exercise training and relaxation training on physical and psychologic health following stressful life events. Psychosom Med 1987;49:355–365.

53. Ruch-Monachon MA, Jalfre M, Haefely W. Drugs and PGO waves in the lateral geniculate body of the curarized cat. II. PGO wave activity and brain 5-hydroxytryptamine. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1976;219:269–286.

54. Saha S, Appenteng K, Batten TFC. Light and electron microscopical localization of 5-HT-immunoreactive boutons in the rat trigeminal motor nucleus. Brain Res 1991;559:145–148.

55. Shin HC, Chapin JK. Movement induced modulation of afferent transmission to single neurons in the ventroposterior thalamus and somatosensory cortex in rat. Exp Brain Res 1990;81:515–522.

56. Steinbusch HWM. Distribution of serotonin-immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rat—cell bodies and terminals. Neuroscience 1981;4:557–618.

57. Steinfels GF, Heym J, Strecker RE, Jacobs BL. Raphe unit activity in freely moving cats is altered by manipulations of central but not peripheral motor systems. Brain Res 1983;279:77–84.

58. Sternbach H. The serotonin syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 1991; 148:705–713.

59. Stewart BR, Jenner P, Marsden CD. Induction of purposeless chewing behaviour in rats by 5-HT agonist drugs. Eur J Pharmacol 1989;162:101–107.

60. Takeuchi Y, Kojima M, Matsuura T, Sano Y. Serotonergic innervation on the motoneurons in the mammalian brainstem. Anat Embryol 1983;167:321–333.

61. Trulson ME, Jacobs BL, Morrison AR. Raphe unit activity during REM sleep in normal cats and in pontine lesioned cats displaying REM sleep without atonia. Brain Res 1981;226:75–91.

62. Vanderwolf CH, Baker GB, Dickson C. Serotonergic control of cerebral activity and behavior: models of dementia. In: Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Peroutka SJ, eds. The neuropharmacology of serotonin. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1990;366–382.

63. Veasey SC, Fornal CA, Metzler CW, Milman W, Jacobs BL. Firing rates of subpopulations of medullary serotonergic neurons in cats are increased with respiratory and locomotor challenges. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1993;19:743.

64. Viala D, Buser P. The effects of DOPA and 5-HTP on rhythmic efferent discharges in hind limb nerves in the rabbit. Brain Res 1969;12:437–443.

65. Waterhouse BD, Azizi SA, Burne RA, Woodward DJ. Modulation of rat cortical area 17 neuronal responses to moving visual stimuli during norepinephrine and serotonin microiontophoresis. Brain Res 1990;514:276–292.

66. Waterhouse BD, Moises HC, Woodward DJ. Interaction of serotonin with somatosensory cortical neuronal responses to afferent synaptic inputs and putative neurotransmitters. Brain Res Bull 1986;17:507–518.

67. Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Peroutka SJ, eds. The neuropharmacology of serotonin. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1990.

68. White SR, Neuman RS. Facilitation of spinal motoneurone excitability by 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline. Brain Res 1980;188:119–127.

69. Wilkinson LO, Dourish CT. Serotonin and animal behavior. In: Peroutka SJ, ed. Serotonin receptor subtypes: basic and clinical aspects. Wiley–Liss, 1991;147–210.

70. Wilkinson LO, Jacobs BL. Lack of response of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of freely moving cats to stressful stimuli. Exp Neurol 1988;101:445–457.

Back to Chapter

published 2000