Norepinephrine and Serotonin Transporters

Molecular Targets of Antidepressant Drugs

E. L. Barker and R. D. Blakely
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology
Emory University School of Medicine
Atlanta, Georgia 30322.


REFERENCES

1. Amara SG, Kuhar MJ. Neurotransmitter transporters: recent progress. Ann Rev Neurosci 1993;16:7393.

2. Anderson GM, Horne WC. Activators of protein kinase C decrease serotonin transport in human platelets. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992;1137:331337.

3. Austin MC, Bradley CC, Mann JJ, Blakely RD. Expression of serotonin transporter mRNA in the human brain. J Neurochem 1994;62:23622367.

4. Bendahan A, Kanner BI. Identification of domains of a cloned rat brain GABA transporter which are not required for its functional expression. FEBS Lett 1993;318:4144.

5. Blakely RD, Berson HE, Fremeau RTJ, et al. Cloning and expression of a functional serotonin transporter from rat brain. Nature 1991;354:6670.

6. Blakely RD, Moore KR, Qian Y. Tails of serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: deletions and chimeras retain function. In: Reuss L, Russell JM, Jennings ML, eds. Molecular biology and function of carrier proteins, vol 48. New York: Rockefeller University Press, 1993;283300.

7. Blount P, Merlie JP. Mutational analysis of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit assembly. J Cell Biol 1990;111:26132622.

8. Borden LA, Smith KE, Hartig PR, Branchek TA, Weinshank RL. Molecular heterogeneity of the g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport system. J Biol Chem 1992;267:2109821104.

9. Borowsky B, Mezey E, Hoffman BJ. Two glycine transporter variants with distinct localization in the CNS and peripheral tissues are encoded by a common gene. Neuron 1993;10:851863.

10. Bruns D, Engert F, Lux HD. A fast activating presynaptic reuptake current during serotonergic transmission in identified neurons of hirudo. Neuron 1993;10:559572.

11. Brüss M, Kunz J, Lingen B, et al. Chromosomal mapping of the human gene for the tricyclic antidepressant-sensitive noradrenaline transporter. Hum Genet 1993;91:278280.

12. Bunn SJ, O'Brien KJ, Boyd TL, Powis DA. Pertussis toxin inhibits noradrenaline accumulation by bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1992;346:649656.

13. Chang AS, Chang SM, Starnes DM, Blakely RD. Cloning and expression of the mouse brain serotonin transporter. Neurosci Abstr 1993;19:206.10.

14. Cool DR, Leibach FH, Bhalla VK, Mahesh VB, Ganapathy V. Expression and cyclic AMP-dependent regulation of a high affinity serotonin transporter in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line (JAR). J Biol Chem 1991;266:1575015757.

15. Demchyshyn LL, Pristupa ZB, Sugamori KS, et al. Cloning, expression and localization of a chloride-facilitated, cocaine-sensitive serotonin transporter from Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:51585162.

16. Duncan GE, Little KY, Kirkman JA, Kaldas RS, Stumpf WE, Breese GR. Autoradiographic characterization of imipramine and citalopram binding in rat and human brain: species differences and relationships to serotonin innervation patterns. Brain Res 1992;591:181197.

17. Edwards RH. The transport of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles. Curr Op Neurobiol 1992;2:594596.

18. Eisenhofer G, Cox HS, Esler MD. Parallel increases in noradrenaline reuptake and release into plasma during activation. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1990;341:192199.

19. Figlewicz DP, Bentson K, Ocrant I. The effect of insulin on norepinephrine uptake by PC12 cells. Brain Res Bull 1993;32:425431.

20. Figlewicz DP, Szot P, Israel PA, et al. Insulin reduces norepinephrine transporter mRNA in vivo in rat locu ceruleus. Brain Res 1993;602:161164.

21. Fozard J, ed. Peripheral actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

22. Fuller RW, Wong DT. Serotonin uptake and serotonin uptake inhibition. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990;600:6878.

23. Fushimi H, Inoue T, Kishino B, et al. Abnormalities in plasma catecholamine response and tissue catecholamine accumulation in streptozotocin diabetic rats: a possible role for diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Life Sci 1984;35:10771081.

24. Ganguly PK, Dhalla KS, Innes IR, Beamish RE, Dhalla NS. Altered norepinephrine turnover and metabolism in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Circ Res 1986;59:684693.

25. Gillis CN. Increased retention of exogenous norepinephrine by cat atria after electrical stimulation of the cardioaccelerator nerves. Biochem Pharmacol 1963;12:593595.

26. Graham D, Tahraoui L, Langer SZ. Effect of chronic treatment with selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors and specific 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitors on [3H]paroxetine binding to cerebral cortical membranes of the rat. Neuropharmacology 1987;26:10871092.

27. Gregor P, Patel A, Shimada S, et al. Murine serotonin transporter: sequence and localization to chromosome 11. Mamm Genome 1993;4:283284.

28. Hoffman BJ, Mezey E, Brownstein MJ. Cloning of a serotonin transporter affected by antidepressants. Science 1991;254:579580.

29. Humphreys CJ, Levin J, Rudnick G. Antidepressant binding to the porcine and human platelet serotonin transporters. Mol Pharmacol 1988;33:657663.

30. Iversen LL. Uptake processes for biogenic amines. In: Iversen LL, Iversen SD, Snyder SH, eds. Handbook of psychopharmacology New York: Plenum Press, 1975;3:381442.

31. Javitch JA, Blaustein RO, Snyder SH. [3H]Mazindol binding associated with neuronal dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites. Mol Pharmacol 1984;26:3544.

32. Kanner BI, Schuldiner S. Mechanism of transport and storage of neurotransmitters. CRC Crit Rev Biochem 1987;22:138.

33. Kimelberg HK, Katz DM. Regional differences in 5-hydroxytryptamine and catecholamine uptake in primary astrocyte cultures. J Neurochem 1986;47:16471652.

34. King SC, Tiller AA, Chang AS, Lam DM. Differential regulation of the imipramine-sensitive serotonin transporter by cAMP in human JAr choriocarcinoma cells, rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, and C33-14-B1 transgenic mouse fibroblast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992;183:487491.

35. Kitayama S, Shimada S, Xu H, Markham L, Donovan DM, Uhl GR. Dopamine transporter site-directed mutations differentially alter substrate transport and cocaine binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:77827785.

36. Kobilka B. Adrenergic receptors as models for G protein-coupled receptors. Annu Rev Neurosci 1993;15:87114.

37. Langer SZ, Schoemaker H. Effects of antidepressants on monoamine transporters. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1988;12:193216.

38. Laruelle M, Baldwin RM, Malison RT, et al. SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with b-CIT: pharmacological characterization of brain uptake in nonhuman primates. Synapse 1993;13:295309.

39. Lee CM, Javitch JA, Snyder SH. Characterization of [3H]desipramine binding associated with neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain membranes. J Neurosci 1982;2:15151525.

40. Lee CM, Javitch JA, Snyder SH. Recognition sites for neurotransmitter uptake: regulation by neurotransmitter. Science 1983; 220:626629.

41. Lesch KP, Aulakh CS, Wolozin BL, Tolliver TJ, Hill JL, Murphy DL. Regional brain expression of serotonin transporter mRNA and its regulation by reuptake inhibiting antidepressants. Mol Brain Res 1993;17:3135.

42. Lesch KP, Wolozin BL, Murphy DL, Reiderer P. Primary structure of the human platelet serotonin uptake site: identity with the brain serotonin transporter. J Neurochem 1993;60:23192322.

43. Levi G, Raiteri M. Carrier-mediated release of neurotransmitter. Trends Neurosci 1993;16:415419.

44. Lorang D, Amara SG, Simerly RB. Cell-type specific expression of catecholamine transporters in the rat brain. J Neurosci 1994;[in press.]

45. Melikian HE, MacDonald JK, Gu H, Rudnick G, Moore KR, Blakely RD. Human norepinephrine transporter: biosynthetic studies using a site-directed polyclonal antibody. J Biol Chem 1994;269:1229012297.

46. Melikian HE, Moore KR, Qian Y, et al. Structure and function of plasma membrane serotonin transporters. Neurosci Abstr 1993; 19:206.1.

47. Miller KJ, Hoffman BJ. Regulation of the serotonin transporter by PKC and adenosine receptor activation. Neurosci Abstr 1993; 19:95.9.

48. Myers CL, Lazo JS, Pitt BR. Translocation of protein kinase C is associated with inhibition of 5-HT uptake by cultured endothelial cells. Am J Physiol 1989;257:L253L258.

49. Owens MJ, Nemeroff CB. The role of serotonin in the pathophysiology of depression: focus on the serotonin transporter. Clin Chem 1994;40:288295.

50. Pacholczyk T, Blakely RD, Amara SG. Expression cloning of a cocaine and antidepressant-sensitive human noradrenaline transporter. Nature 1991;350:350354.

51. Raizada MK, Shemer J, Judkins JH, Clarke DW, Masters BA, LeRoith D. Insulin receptors in the brain: Structural and physiological characterization. Neurochem Res 1988;13:297303.

52. Ramamoorthy S, Bauman AL, Moore KR, et al. Antidepressant- and cocaine-sensitive human serotonin transporter: molecular cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:25422546.

53. Ramamoorthy S, Cool DR, Mahesh VB, et al. Regulation of the human serotonin transporter: cholera toxin-induced stimulation of serotonin uptake in human placental choriocarcinoma cells is accompanied by increased serotonin transporter mRNA levels and serotonin transporter-specific ligand binding. J Biol Chem 1993; 268:2162621631.

54. Ramamoorthy S, Leibach FH, Mahesh VB, Ganapathy V. Partial purification and characterization of the human placental serotonin transporter. Placenta 1993;14:449461.

55. Ramamoorthy S, Prasad PD, Kulanthaivel P, Leibach FH, Blakely RD, Ganapathy V. Expression of a cocaine-sensitive norepinephrine transporter in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast. Biochemistry 1993;32:13461353.

56. Rogers C, Lemaire S. Characterization of [3H]desmethylimipramine binding in bovine adrenal medulla: interactions with s- and (or) phencyclidine-receptor ligands. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1992; 70:15081514.

57. Rorie DK, Hunter LW, Tyce GM. Dihydroxyphenylglycol as an index of neuronal uptake in dog saphenous vein. Am J Physiol 1989;257:H1945H1951.

58. Rudnick G, Clark J. From synapse to vesicle: the reuptake and storage of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Biochim Biophys Acta Bio-Energetics 1993;1144:249263.

59. Rudnick G, Wall SC. The platelet plasma membrane serotonin transporter catalyzes exchange between neurotoxic amphetamines and serotonin. Ann NY Acad Sci 1992;648:345347.

60. Sumners C, Raizada MK. Angiotensin II stimulates norepinephrine uptake in hypothalamus-brain stem neuronal cultures. Am J Physiol 1986;250:C236244.

61. Tejani-Butt SM. [3H]Nisoxetine: a radioligand for quantitation of norepinephrine uptake sites by autoradiography or by homogenate binding. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992;260:427436.

62. Vatta MS, Bianciotti LG, Fernandez BE. Influence of atrial natriuretic factor on uptake, intracellular distribution, and release of norepinephrine in rat adrenal medulla. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1993;71:195200.

63. Vatta MS, Bianciotti LG, Locatelli AS, Papouchada ML, Fernandez BE. Monophasic and biphasic effects of angiotensin II and III on norepinephrine uptake and release in rat adrenal medulla. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1992;70:821825.

64. Vatta MS, Bianciotti LG, Papouchada ML, Locatelli AS, Fernandez BE. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide and angiotensin III on the uptake and intracellular distribution of norepinephrine in medulla oblongata of the rat. Comp Biochem Physiol 1991;99C:293297.

65. Walker JM, Bowen WD, Walker FO, Matsumoto RR, De Costa B, Rice KC. Sigma receptors: biology and function. Pharmacol Rev 1990;42:355402.

66. Wall SC, Innis RB, Rudnick G. Binding of the cocaine analog 2b-carbomethoxy-3 b-(4-[125I]iodophenyl)tropane to serotonin and dopamine transporters: different ionic requirements for substrate and 2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-[125I]iodophenyl)tropane binding. Mol Pharmacol 1993;43:264270.

Back to Chapter

published 2000