Dopamine Receptors: Clinical Correlates

Philip Seeman
Departments of Pharmacology and Psychiatry
Medical Sciences Building
University of Toronto
Canada M5S 1A8.


1. Abi-Dargham A, Gill R, Baldwin RM, et al. In vivo evaluation of dopamine synaptic function in untreated schizophrenic patients. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996;22:266.

2. Arinami T, Itokawa M, Aoki J, et al. Further association study on dopamine D2 receptor variant S311C in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:133-138.

3. Arnt J. Behavioural stimulation is induced by separate dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptor sites in reserpine-pretreated but not in normal rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1985;113:79-88.

4. Audinot V, Rasolonjanahary R, Giros B, et al. Couplage différential à la phospholipase C des deux isoformes du recepteur dopaminergique D2 transfectées dans la lignée GH4C1. Ann Endocrinol 1991;52:17N.

5. Berendse HW, Richfield EK. Heterogeneous distribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the human ventral striatum. Neurosci Lett 1993;150:75-79.

6. Bersani G, Grispini A, Marini S, Pasini A, Valducci M, Ciani N. 5-HT2 antagonist ritanserin in neuroleptic-induced Parkinsonism: A double-blind comparison with orphenadrine and placebo. Clin Neuropharmacol 1990;13:500-506.

7. Bligh-Glover W, Jaskiw GE, Vrtunski B, Ubogy D, Meltzer HY. 5HT2-receptor antagonists can attenuate submaximal haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. Schizophr Res 1995;15:153 .

8. Borison RL, Huff FJ, Varaklis J, Griffiths L, Ramaswamy R, Shipley JE. Efficacy of 2 and 4 mg BID iloperidone (HP 873) administered to schizophrenic patients for 42 days. Am Coll Neuropsychopharmacol 1995;34:135 .

9. Bracha HS. Asymmetric rotational (circling) behavior, a dopamine-related asymmetry: preliminary findings in unmedicated and never-medicated schizophrenic patients. Biol Psychiatry 1987;22:995-1003.

10. Bracha HS. Is there a right hemi-hyper-dopaminergic psychosis? Schizophr Res 1989;2: 317-324.

11. Bracha HS, Seitz DJ, Otemaa J, Glick SD. Rotational movement (circling) in normal humans: Sex difference and relationship to hand, foot and eye preference. Brain Res 1987;411:231-235.

12. Bracha HS, Shults C, Glick SD, Kleinman JE. Spontaneous asymmetric circling behavior in hemi-Parkinsonism: A human equivalent of the lesion-circling rodent behavior. Life Sci 1987;40:1127-1130.

13. Bracha HS, Lyden PD, Khansarinia S. Delayed emergence of striatal dopaminergic hyperactivity after anterolateral ischemic cortical lesions in humans; evidence from turning behavior. Biol Psychiatry 1989;25: 265-274.

14. Bracha HS, Livingston RL, Clothier J, Linington BB, Karson CN. Correlation of severity of psychiatric patients' delusions with right hemispatial inattention (left-turning behavior). Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:330-332.

15. Breier A, Su T-P, Elman I, et al. Schizophrenia is associated with enhanced amphetamine-induced dopamine release. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996;22:266 .

16. Brücke T, Roth J, Podreka I, Strobl R, Wenger S, Asenbaum S. Striatal dopamine D2-receptor blockade by typical and atypical neuroleptics. Lancet 1992;339:497.

17. Buckland PR, O'Donovan MC, McGuffin P. Both splicing variants of the dopamine D2 receptor mRNA are up-regulated by antipsychotic drugs. Neurosci Lett 1993;150:25-28.

18. Burris KD, Pacheco MA, Filtz TM, Kung M-P, Kung HF, Molinoff PB. Lack of discrimination by agonists for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 1995;12:335-345.

19. Busatto GF, Pilowsky LS, Costa DC, Ell PJ, Verhoeff NPLG, Kerwin RW. Dopamine D2 receptor blockade in vivo with the novel antipsychotics risperidone and remoxipride—an 123I-IBZM single photon emission tomography (SPET) study. Psychopharmacology 1995;117:55-61.

20. Casey DE. The effect of a serotonin S2 antagonist, ritanserin, and an anticholinergic benztropine on haloperidol-induced dystonia in nonhuman primates. Am Coll Neuropsychopharmacol 1991;30:127.

21. Casey DE. Serotonergic and dopaminergic aspects of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes in nonhuman primates. Psychopharmacology 1993;112:S55-S59.

22. Castro SW, Strange PG. Differences in the ligand binding properties of the short and long versions of the D2 dopamine receptor. J Neurochem 1993;60:372-375.

23. Castro SW, Strange PG. Coupling of D2 and D3 dopamine receptors to G-proteins. FEBS Lett 1993;315:223-226.

24. Catalano M, Nobile M, Novelli E, Nöthen MM, Smeraldi E. Distribution of a novel mutation in the first exon of the human D4 receptor gene in psychotic patients. Biol Psychiatry 1993;34:459-464.

25. Chen C-H, Chien S-H, Hwu H-G. No association of dopamine D2 receptor molecular variant Cys311 and schizophrenia in Chinese patients. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:418-420.

26. Chen C-H, Liu M-Y, Wei F-C, Koong F-J, Hwu H-G, Hsiao K-J. Further evidence of no association between Ser9Gly polymorphism of dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet 1997;74:40-43.

27. Chio CL, Lajiness ME, Huff RM. Activation of heterologously expressed D3 dopamine receptors: Comparison with D2 dopamine receptors. Mol Pharmacol 1994;45:51-60.

28. Conley R, Zhao M, Wong D, Tamminga C. 11C NMSP receptor occupancy by clozapine and haloperidol in schizophrenic subjects. Biol Psychiatry 1996;39:513 (.

29. Craychik A, Sibley DR, Post RM, Gejman PV. Functional analysis of the human dopamine D2 receptor variants. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996;22:1315.

30. Dal Toso R, Sommer B, Ewert M, et al. The dopamine D2 receptor: two molecular forms generated by alternative splicing. EMBO J 1989;8:4025-4034.

31. De Beaurepaire R, Labelle A, Naber D, Jones BD, Barnes TRE. An open trial of the D1 antagonist SCh 39166 in six cases of acute psychotic states. Psychopharmacology 1995;121:323-327.

32. Den Boer JA, van Megen HJGM, Fleischhacker WW, et al. Differential effects of the D1-DA receptor antagonist SCH 39166 on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 1995;121:317-322.

33. De Keyser J. Subtypes and localization of dopamine receptors in human brain. Neurochem Int 1993;22:83-93.

34. Dewey SL, Smith GS, Logan J, et al. Serotonergic modulation of striatal dopamine measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and in vivo microdialysis. J Neurosci 1995;15:821-829.

35. Duinkerke SJ, Botter PA, Jansen AAI, V et al. Ritanserin, a selective 5-HT2/1c antagonist, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia Br J Psychiatry 1993;163:451-455.

36. Durcan MJ, Rigdon GC, Norman MH, Morgan PF. The apparent relative selectivity of dopamine antagonists for dopamine D2 and D4 receptor clones depends on the radioligand. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1995;21: Abstr 252.1.

37. Farde L. Selective D1- and D2-dopamine receptor blockade both induces akathisia in humans—a PET study with [11C]SCH 23390 and [11C]raclopride. Psychopharmacology 1992;107:23-29.

38. Farde L, Wiesel F-A, Halldin C, Sedvall G. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45:71-76.

39. Farde L, Wiesel, F-A, Stone-Elander S, et al. D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]raclopride. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990;47:213-219.

40. Farde L, Nordström A-L, Wiesel F-A, Pauli S, Halldin C, Sedvall G. Positron emission tomographic analysis of central D1 and D2 dopamine receptor occupancy in patients treated with classical neuroleptics and clozapine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:538-544.

41. Farde L, Nordström A-L. PET analysis indicates atypical central dopamine receptor occupancy in clozapine-treated patients. Br J Psychiatry 1992;160(Suppl 17):30-33.

42. Farrell CB, Lawlor M, Dunne A, O'Boyle KM. D2 receptor antagonists do not modify guanine nucleotide-sensitive interactions between dopamine and D1 dopamine receptors under in vitro conditions. J Neurochem 1995;65:1124-1130.

43. Fishburn CS, Belleli D, David C, Carmon S, Fuchs S. A novel short isoform of the D3 dopamine receptor generated by alternative splicing in the third cytoplasmic loop. J Biol Chem 1993;268:5872-5878.

44. Gaitonde EJ, Morris A, Sivagnanasundaram S, McKenna PJ, Hunt DM, Mollon JD. Assessment of association of D3 dopamine receptor MscI polymorphism with schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:455-458.

45. Gardner B, Hall DA, Strange PG. Pharmacological analysis of dopamine stimulation of [35S]-GTPgS binding via human D2short and D2long dopamine receptors expressed in recombinant cells. Br J Pharmacol 1996;118:1544-1550.

46. Gaspar P, Bloch B, Le Moine C. D1 and D2 receptor gene expression in the rat frontal cortex: Cellular localization in different classes of efferent neurons. Eur J Neurosci 1995;7:1050-1063.

47. Gejman PV, Ram A, Gelernter J, et al. No structural mutation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism or schizophrenia. Analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. JAMA 1994;271:204-208.

48. George SR, Watanabe M, Di Paolo T, Falardeau P, Labrie F, Seeman P. The functional state of the dopamine receptor in the anterior pituitary is in the high-affinity form. Endocrinology 1985; 117: 690-697.

49. Giros B, Sokoloff P, Martres M-P, Riou J-F, Emorine LJ, Schwartz J-C. Alternative splicing directs the expression of two D2 dopamine receptor isoforms. Nature 1989;342:923-926.

50. Giros B, Martres M-P, Sokoloff P, Schwartz J-C. Clonage de gène du récepteur dopaminergique D3 humain et identification de son chromosome. Comptes Rendu Acad Sci Paris 1990;311:501-508.

51. Gjedde A, Reith J, Wong DF. In schizophrenia, some D2-like receptors are still elevated. Psychiatry Res 1996;67:159-162.

52. Glick SD, Ross DA. Lateralization of function the rat brain mechanisms may be operative in humans. Trends Neurosci 1981;4:196-19.

53. Glick SD, Jerussi TP, Fleisher LN. Turning in circles: the neuropharmacology of rotation. Life Sci 1976;18:889-896.

54. Gonzalez AM, Sibley DR. [3H]7-OH-DPAT is capable of labeling dopamine D2 as well as D3 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 1995;272:R1-R3.

55. Grandy DK, Marchionni MA, Makam H, et al. Cloning of the cDNA and gene for a human D2 dopamine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86:9762-9766.

56. Greenblatt EN, Lippa AS, Osterberg AC. The neuropharmacological actions of amoxapine. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 1978;233:107-135.

57. Griffon N, Crocq MA, Pilon C, et al. Dopamine D3 receptor gene: Organization, transcript variants and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:63-70.

58. Guiramand J, Montmayeur J-P, Ceraline J, Bhatia M, Borrelli E. Alternative splicing of the dopamine D2 receptor directs specificity of coupling to G-proteins. J Biol Chem 1995;270:7354-7358.

59. Hall H, Halldin C, Dijkstra D, et al. Autoradiographic localization of D3-dopamine receptors in the human brain using the selective D3-dopamine receptor agonist (+)-[3H]PD 128907. Psychopharmacology 1996;128:240-247.

60. Haring C, Fleischhacker WW, Schett P, Humpel C, Barnas C, Saria A. Influence of patient-related variables on clozapine plasma levels. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:1471-1475.

61. Hasegawa M, Gutierrez-Esteinou R, Way L, Meltzer HY. Relationship between clinical efficacy and clozapine concentrations in plasma in schizophrenia: Effect of smoking. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1993;13:383-390.

62. Heitala J, Syvälahti E, Vuorio K, et al. Striatal D2 dopamine receptor characteristics in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients studied with positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:116-123.

63. Hersch SM, Ciliax BJ, Gutekunst C-A, et al. Electron microscopic analysis of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor proteins in the dorsal striatum and their synaptic relationships with motor corticostriatal afferents. J Neurosci 1995;15:5222-5237.

64. Huttunen M. The evolution of the serotonin-dopamine antagonist concept. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1995;15(Suppl 1):4S-10S.

65. Itokawa M, Arinami T, Futamura N, Hamaguchi H, Toru M. A structural polymorphism of human dopamine D2 receptor, D2(Ser311 => Cys). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993;196:1369-1375.

66. Itokawa M, Toru M, Ito K, et al. Sequestration of the short and long isoforms of dopamine D2 receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mol Pharmacol 1996;49:560-566.

67. Jones-Humble SA, Durcan MJ, Lyerly D, et al. Preclinical neurochemical and electrophysiological profile of 1192U90, a potential antipsychotic. Neuropsychopharmacology 1996;15:217-230.

68. Kapur S, Remington G, Zipursky RB, Wilson AA, Houle S. The D2 dopamine receptor occupancy of risperidone and its relationship to extrapyramidal symptoms: A PET study. Life Sci 1995;57:103-107.

69. Karbe H, Wienhard K, Hamacher K, et al. Positron emission tomography with (18F)methylspiperone demonstrates D2 dopamine receptor binding differences of clozapine and haloperidol. J Neural Transm 1991;86:163-173.

70. Karlsson P, Smith L, Farde L, Härnryd C, Sedvall G, Wiesel F-A. Lack of apparent antipsychotic effect of the D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH39166 in acutely ill schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology 1995;121:309-316.

71. Kawagoe KT, Garris PA, Wiedemann DJ, Wightman RM. Regulation of transient dopamine concentration gradients in the microenvironment surrounding nerve terminals in the rat striatum. Neuroscience 1992;51:55-64.

72. Kennedy JL, Billett EA, Macciardi FM, et al. Association study of dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet 1995;60:558-562.

73. Klemm E, Grünwald F, Kasper S, et al. [123I]IBZM SPECT for imaging of striatal D2 dopamine receptors in 56 schizophrenic patients taking various neuroleptics. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:183-190.

74. Kukstas LA, Domec C, Bascles L, et al. Different expression of the two dopaminergic D2 receptors, D2415 and D2444, in two types of lactotroph each characterized by their response to dopamine, and modification of expression by sex steroids. Endocrinology 1991;129:1101-1103.

75. Kuoppamäki M, Syvälahti E, Hietala J. Clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine are potent 5-HT1C receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol 1993;245:179-182.

76. LaHoste GJ, Marshall JF. Dopamine supersensitivity and D1/D2 synergism are unrelated to changes in striatal receptor density. Synapse 1992;12:14-26.

77. LaHoste GJ, Marshall JF. The role of dopamine in the maintenance and breakdown of D1/D2 synergism. Brain Res 1993;611:108-116.

78. Lahti RA, Roberts RC, Cochrane EV, Primus RJ, Gallager DW, Tamminga CA. [3H]-NGD-94-1 binding in human postmortem brain of normals and schizophrenics off-, or on-antipsychotic drugs at death. Schizophr Res 1997;24:35.

79. Lannfelt L, Sokoloff P, Martres M-P, et al. Amino acid substitution in the dopamine D3 receptor as a useful polymorphism for investigating psychiatric disorders. Psychiatr Genet 1992;2:249-256.

80. Laruelle M, De Souza C, Baldwin RM, et al. SPECT measurement of human striatal synaptic dopamine concentration in the resting state. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996;22:266.

81. Laurent C, Savoye C, Samolyk D, et al. Homozygosity at the dopamine D3 receptor locus is not associated with schizophrenia. J Med Genet 1994;31:260-264.

82. Lee SP, Ng GYK, Zawarynski P, Seeman P, O'Dowd BF, George SR. Regulation of the dopamine D2 receptor dimer. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1997;23:1780.

83. Le Moine C, Bloch B. Rat striatal and mesencephalic neurons contain the long isoform of the D2 dopamine receptor mRNA. Mol Brain Res 1991;10:283-289.

84. Levant B, Bancroft GN, Selkirk CM. In vivo occupancy of D2 dopamine receptors by 7-OH-DPAT. Synapse 1996;24:60-64.

85. Leysen JE, Gommeren W, Mertens J, et al. Comparison of in vitro binding properties of a series of dopamine antagonists and agonists for cloned human dopamine D2S and D2L receptors and for D2 receptors in rat striatal and mesolimbic tissues, using [125I]2'-iodospiperone. Psychopharmacology 1993;110:27-36.

86. Leysen JE, Megens AAHH, Janssen PMF, Schotte A. Finely balanced 5HT2/D2-antagonism: A crucial factor for the treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 1994;10:467S .

87. Lieberman J, Johns C, Pollack S, et al. Biochemical effects of clozapine in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia, in Advances in neuropsychiatry and psychopharmacology, Volume 1: Schizophrenia research. Tamminga CA, Schultz SC, eds. New York: Raven Press, 1991;341-349.

88. Lichter JB, Barr CL, Kennedy JL, Van Tol HHM, Kidd KK, Livak KJ. A hypervariable segment in the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. Hum Mol Genet 1993;2:767-773.

89. Lin S-K, Chang W-H, Chung M-C, Lam YWF, Jann MW. Disposition of clozapine and desmethylclozapine in schizophrenic patients. J Clin Pharmacol 1994;34:318-324.

90. Liu ISC, Seeman P, Sanyal S, et al. Dopamine D4 receptor variant in Africans, D4Valine194Glycine, is insensitive to dopamine and clozapine: Report of a homozygous individual. Am J Med Genet 1996;61:277-282.

91. Liu YF, Civelli O, Grandy, Albert PR. Differential sensitivity of the short and long human dopamine D2 receptor subtypes to protein kinase C. J Neurochem 1992;59:2311-2317.

92. Louwerens JW, Buddingh JA, Zijlstra S, et al. Dopamine (D2)-receptor occupancy in clozapine-treated patients as measured by positron emission tomography using 18FESP. In: Brunello N, Mendlewicz J, Racagni G, eds. New generation of antipsychotic drugs: Novel mechanisms of action. Basel: Karger, 1993;4:130-135.

93. Louwerens JW, Sloof CJ, Korf J, Coppens HJ, Paans AMJ. Dopamine2- and serotonin2-receptor-antagonism by antipsychotics in man. Schizophr Res 1996;18:141.

94. Lyon N, Satz P. Left turning (swivel) in medicated chronic schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Res 1991;4:53-58.

95. Lyon N, Satz P, Fleming K, Green MF, Bracha HS. Left turning (swivel) in manic patients. Schizophr Res 1992;7: 71-76.

96. Malmberg Å, Mohell N. Characterization of [3H]quinpirole binding to human dopamine D2A and D3 receptors: Effects of ions and guanine nucleotides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995;274:790-797.

97. Malmberg Å, Jackson D, Eriksson A, Mohell N. Unique binding characteristics of antipsychotic agents interacting with human dopamine D2A, D2B, and D3 receptors. Mol Pharmacol 1993;43:749-754.

98. Martres MP, Sokoloff P, Giros B, Schwartz JC. Effects of dopaminergic transmission interruption on the D2 receptor isoforms in various cerebral tissues. J Neurochem 1992;58:673-679.

99. Meade R, Huston K, Cornfield LJ, Thurkauf A, Hutchison A, Tallman J. The in vitro binding profile and functional characterization of NGD 94-1, a potent and selective D4 antagonist. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1995;21:Abstr 252.3.

100. Meltzer HY. Clinical studies on the mechanism of action of clozapine: the dopamine-serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 1989;99:S18-S27.

101. Meltzer HY. The role of serotonin in schizophrenia and the place of serotonin-dopamine antagonist antipsychotics. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1995;15(Suppl 1):2S-3S.

102. Meltzer HY, Kennedy J, Dai J, Parsa M, Riley D. Plasma clozapine levels and the treatment of L-DOPA-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychopharmacology 1995;12:39-45.

103. Meltzer HY, Roth B, Thompson P. Serotonin and dopamine receptor affinities predict atypical antipsychotic drug (AAD) activity. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996;22:480.

104. Momiyama T, Todo N, Sasa M. A mechanism underlying dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic neurones in the ventral tegmental area in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 1993;109:933-940.

105. Murray AM, Hyde TM, Knable MB, et al. Distribution of putative D4 dopamine receptors in postmortem striatum from patients with schizophrenia. J Neurosci 1995;15:2186-2191.

106. Nagai Y, Ueno S, Saeki Y, Soga F, Yanagihara T. Expression of the D3 dopamine receptor gene and a novel variant transcript generated by alternative splicing in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993;194:368-374.

107. Nanko S, Fukuda R, Hattori M, et al. Further evidence of no linkage between schizophrenia and the dopamine D3 receptor gene locus. Am J Med Genet 1994;54:264-267.

108. Neve KA, Neve RL, Fidel S, Janowsky A, Higgins GA. Increased abundance of alternatively spliced forms of D2 dopamine receptor mRNA after denervation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:2802-2806.

109. Ng GYK, O'Dowd BF, Lee SP, Chung HT, Brann MR, Seeman P, George SR. Dopamine D2 receptor dimers and receptor-blocking peptides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;227:200-204.

110. Nguyen T, Jin H, Taruscio D, Ward D, Kennedy JL, Seeman P, O'Dowd BF. Human dopamine D5 receptor human pseudogenes. Gene 1991;109:211-218.

111. Nguyen T, Sunahara R, Van Tol, HHM, Seeman P, O'Dowd BF. Transcription of a human dopamine D5 pseudogene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991;181:16-21.

112. Niznik HB, Grigoriadis DE, Pri-Bar I, Buchman O, Seeman P. Dopamine D2 receptors selectively labeled by a benzamide neuroleptic: [3H]-YM-09151-2. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1985;329:333-343.

113. Nordin C, Almé B, Bodesson, U. CSF and serum concentrations of clozapine and its demethyl metabolite: a pilot study. Psychopharmacology 1995;122:104-107.

114. Nordström A-L, Farde L. Reply to: In schizophrenia, some D2-like receptors are still elevated. Psychiatry Res 1996;67:161-162.

115. Nordström A-L, Farde L, Wiesel F-A, et al. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in relation to antipsychotic drug effects: a double-blind PET study of schizophrenic patients. Biol Psychiatry 1993;33:227-235.

116. Nordström A-L, Farde L, Eriksson L, Halldin C. No elevated D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients revealed by positron tomography and [11C]N-methylspiperone. Psychiatry Res 1995;61:67-83.

117. Nordström A-L, Farde L, Nyberg S, Karlsson P, Halldin C, Sedvall G. D1, D2, and 5-HT2 receptor occupancy in relation to clozapine serum concentration: A PET study of schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:1444-1449.

118. Nöthen MM, Cichon S, Propping P, Fimmers R, Schwab SG, Wildenauer DB. Excess of homozygosity at the dopamine D3 receptor gene in schizophrenia not confirmed. J Med Genet 1993;30:708.

119. Nöthen MM, Cichon S, Hemmer S, et al. Human dopamine D4 receptor gene: frequent occurrence of a null allele and observation of homozygosity. Hum Mol Genet 1994;3:2207-2212.

120. Nyberg S, Nordström A-L, Halldin C, Farde L. Positron emission tomography studies on D2 dopamine receptor occupancy and plasma antipsychotic drug levels in man. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1995;10(Suppl 3):81-85.

121. Nyberg S, Farde L, Halldin C, Dahl M-L, Bertilsson L. D2 dopamine receptor occupancy during low-dose treatment with haloperidol decanoate. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:173-178.

122. Nyberg S, Nakashima Y, Nordström A-L, Halldin, Farde L. Positron emission tomography of in vivo binding characteristics of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Review of D2 and 5-HT2 receptor occupancy studies and clinical response. Br J Psychiatry 1996;168(Suppl 29):40-44.

123. Nyberg S, Farde L. The relevance of serotonergic mechanisms in the treatment of schizophrenia has not been confirmed. J Psychopharmacol 1997;11:13-14.

124. Obeso JA, Grandas F, Herrero MT, Horowski R. The role of pulsatile versus continuous dopamine receptor stimulation for functional recovery in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurosci 1994;6:889-897.

125. O'Dowd BF, Nguyen T, Tirpak A, et al. Cloning of two additional catecholamine receptors from rat brain. FEBS Lett 1990;262:8-12.

126. Ohara K, Nakamura Y, Xie D-W, et al. Polymorphism of dopamine D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) receptors in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 1996;40:1209-1217.

127. Olesen OV, Thomsen K, Jensen PN, et al. Clozapine serum levels and side effects during steady state treatment of schizophrenic patients: a cross-sectional study. Psychopharmacology 1995;117:371-378.

128. Parson LH, Justice JB, Jr. Extracellular concentration and in vivo recovery of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens using microdialysis. J Neurochem 1992;58:212-218.

129. Paul ML, Graybiel AM, David J-C, Robertson HA. D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors synergistically activate rotation and c-fos expression in the dopamine-depleted striatum in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci 1992;12:3729-3742.

130. Perry PJ, Miller DD, Arndt SV, Cadoret RJ. Clozapine and norclozapine plasma concentrations and clinical response of treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 1991;148:231-235.

131. Pickar D, Su T-P, Weinberger DR, et al. Individual variation in D2 dopamine receptor occupancy in clozapine-treated patients. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:1571-1578.

132. Pilowsky LS, Costa DC, Ell PJ, Murray RM, Verhoeff NPLG, Kerwin RW. Clozapine, single photon emission tomography, and the D2 dopamine receptor blockade hypothesis of schizophrenia. Lancet 1992;340:199-202.

133. Pilowsky LS, Busatto GF, Taylor M, et al. Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in vivo by the novel atypical antipsychotic olanzapine—a 123I IBZM single photon emission tomography (SPET) study. Psychopharmacology 1996;124:148-153.

134. Piomelli D, Pilon C, Giros B, Sokoloff P, Martres M-P, Schwartz J-C. Dopamine activation of the arachidonic acid cascade as a basis for D1/D2 receptor synergism. Nature 1991; 353:164-167.

135. Reynolds GP, Czudek C, Bzowej N, Seeman P. Dopamine receptor asymmetry in schizophrenia. Lancet 1987;1:979.

136. Rigdon GC, Norman MH, Cooper BR, et al. 1192U90 in animal tests that predict antipsychotic efficacy, anxiolysis, and extrapyramidal side effects. Neuropsychopharmacology 1996;15:231-242.

137. Roberts DA, Balderson D, Pickering-Brown, Deakin JFW, Owen F. The abundance of mRNA for dopamine D2 receptor isoforms in brain tissue from controls and schizophrenics. Mol Brain Res 1994;25:173-175.

138. Rogue P, Hanauer A, Zwiller J, Malviya AN, Vincendon G. Up-regulation of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in rat striatum by chronic neuroleptic treatment. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;207:165-168.

139. Rothschild LG, Badner J, Cravchik A, Gershon ES, Gejman PV. No association detected between a D3 receptor gene-expressed variant and schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:232-234.

140. Sabaté O, Campion D, d'Amato T, et al. Failure to find evidence for linkage or association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:107-111.

141. Sautel F, Griffon N, Sokoloff P, et al. Nafadotride, a potent preferential dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, activates locomotion in rodents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995;275:1239-1246.

142. Schinelli S, Paolilo M, Corona GL. Opposing actions of D1- and D2-dopamine receptors on arachidonic acid release and cyclic AMP production in striatal neurons. J Neurochem 1994;62:944-949.

143. Schmauss C, Haroutunian V, Davis KL, Davidson M. Selective loss of dopamine D3-type receptor mRNA expression in parietal and motor cortices of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:8942-8946.

144. Schotte A, Janssen PFM, Leysen JE. Antipsychotic drugs apparently lack dopamine D3 receptor occupancy after in vivo treatment: An ex vivo autoradiographic study in the rat brain. Int. Meeting on Dopamine, Quebec City, 1994.

145. Seeman MV, ed. Gender and psychopathology. Washington: American Psychiatry Association Press, 1995.

146. Seeman P. Dopamine receptor sequences. Therapeutic levels of neuroleptics occupy D2 receptors, clozapine occupies D4. Neuropsychopharmacology 1992;7:261-284.

147. Seeman P. Dopamine receptors—Clinical correlates. In: Bloom FE, Kupfer DJ, eds. Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress. New York: Raven Press, Ltd., 1995;295-302.

148. Seeman P. Dopamine receptors and psychosis. Scientific Am Sci Med 1995;2:28-37.

149. Seeman P, Kapur S. Clozapine occupies high levels of dopamine D2 receptors. Life Sci 1997;60:207-216.

150. Seeman P, Niznik HB. Dopamine D1 receptor pharmacology. ISI Atlas of Sci Pharmacol 1988;2:161-170.

151. Seeman P, Van Tol HHM. Dopamine receptor pharmacology. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 1993;6:602-608.

152. Seeman P, Van Tol HHM. Dopamine D4 receptors bind inactive (+)-aporphines, suggesting neuroleptic role. Sulpiride not stereoselective. Eur J Pharmacol 1993;233:173-174.

153. Seeman P, Van Tol HHM. Deriving the therapeutic concentrations for clozapine and haloperidol: The apparent dissociation constant of a neuroleptic at the dopamine D2 or D4 receptor varies with the affinity of the competing radioligand. Eur J Pharmacol 1995;291:59-66.

154. Seeman P, Chau-Wong M, Tedesco J, Wong K. Brain receptors for antipsychotic drugs and dopamine: Direct binding assays. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1975;72:4376-4380.

155. Seeman P, Bzowej NH, Guan H-C, et al. Human brain dopamine receptors in children and aging adults. Synapse 1987;1:399-404.

156. Seeman P, Bzowej NH, Guan H-C, et al. Human brain D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Neuropsychopharmacology 1987;1:5-15.

157. Seeman P, Guan H-C, Niznik HB. Endogenous dopamine lowers the dopamine D2 receptor density as measured by [3H]raclopride: implications for positron emission tomography of the human brain. Synapse 1989;3:96-97.

158. Seeman P, Niznik HB, Guan H-C, Booth G, Ulpian C. Link between D1 and D2 dopamine receptors is reduced in schizophrenia and Huntington diseased brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86:10156-10160.

159. Seeman P, Niznik, HB, Guan H-C. Elevation of D2 dopamine receptors in schizophrenia is underestimated by radioactive raclopride. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990;47:1170-1172.

160. Seeman P, Guan H-C, Civelli O, Van Tol HHM, Sunahara RK, Niznik HB. The cloned dopamine D2 receptor reveals different densities for dopamine antagonist ligands. Implications for human brain positron emission tomography. Eur J Pharmacol 1992;227:139-146.

161. Seeman P, Guan H-C, Van Tol, HHM. Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia. Nature 1993; 365:441-445.

162. Seeman P, Ulpian C, Chouinard G, et al. Dopamine D4 receptor variant, D4GLYCINE 194, in Africans, but not in Caucasians: No association with schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet 1994;54:384-390.

163. Seeman P, Guan H-C, Van Tol HHM. Schizophrenia: elevation of dopamine D4-like sites, using [3H]nemonapride and [125I]epidepride. Eur J Pharmacol 1995;286:R3-R5.

164. Seeman P, Corbett R, Nam D, Van Tol HHM. Dopamine and serotonin receptors: Amino acid sequences, and clinical role in neuroleptic Parkinsonism. Jap J Pharmacol 1996;71:187-204.# 165. Seeman P, Guan H-C, Nobrega J, et al. Dopamine D2-like sites in schizophrenia, but not in Huntington's, Alzheimer's or control brains, for [3H]benzquinoline. Synapse 1996;25:137-146.

166. Seeman P, Corbett R, Van Tol HHM. Atypical neuroleptics have low affinity for dopamine D2 receptors or are selective for D4. Neuropsychopharmacology 1997;16:93-135.

167. Seeman P, Tallerico T, Corbett R, Van Tol HHM, Kamboj RK. Role of dopamine D2, D4 and serotonin2A receptors in antipsychotic and anticataleptic action. J Psychopharmacol 1997;11:15-17.

168. Shaikh S, Collier DA, Arranz M, Crocq M-A, Gill M, Kerwin R. Examination of the DRD2(Ser-Cys) variant in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1995;15:48.

169. Shetreat ME, Lin L, Wong AC, Rayport S. Visualization of D1 dopamine receptors on living nucleus accumbens neurons and their colocalization with D2 receptors. J Neurochem 1996;66:1475-1482.

170. Sibley DR, Monsma FJ, Jr. Molecular biology of dopamine receptors. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1992;13:61-69.

171. Silver H, Blacker M, Weller MPI, Lerer B. Treatment of chronic schizophrenia with cyproheptadine: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. Biol Psychiatry 1991;30:523-525.

172. Smith GS, Dewey SL, Brodie JD, et al. Serotonergic modulation of dopamine measured with [11C]raclopride and PET in normal human subjects. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154:490-496.

173. Snyder LA, Roberts JL, Sealfon SC. Distribution of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA splice variants in the rat by solution hybridization/protection assay. Neurosci Lett 1991;122:37-40.

174. Snyder LA, Roberts JL, Sealfon SC. Alternative transcripts of the rat and human dopamine D3 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991;180;1031-1035.

175. Sokoloff P, Giros B, Martres M-P, Bouthenet M-L, Schwartz J-C. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dopamine receptor (D3) as a target for neuroleptics. Nature 1990;347:146-151.

176. Sommer SS, Lind TJ, Heston LL, Sobell JL. Dopamine D4 receptor variants in unrelated schizophrenic cases and controls. Am J Med Genet 1993;48:90-93.

177. Sonsalla PK, Manzino L, Heikkila RE. Interactions of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors on the ipsilateral vs. contralateral side in rats with unilateral lesions of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1988;247:180-185.

178. Spano PF, Govoni S, Trabucchi M. Studies on the pharmacological properties of dopamine receptors in various areas of the central nervous system. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 1978;19:155-165.

179. Stockmeier CA, Dicarlo JJ, ZhangY, Thompson P, Meltzer HY. Characterization of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs based on in vivo occupancy of serotonin2 and dopamine2 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993;266:1374-1384.

180. Su T-P, Breier A, Coppola R, et al. D2 receptor occupancy in risperidone and clozapine-treated schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry 1996;39:512-513.

181. Su T-P, Breier A, Coppola R, et al. D2 receptor occupancy during risperidone and clozapine treatment in chronic schizophrenia: Relationship to blood level, efficacy and EPS. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996;22: 265.

182. Sumiyoshi T, Stockmeier CA, Overholser JC, Thompson PA, Meltzer HY. Dopamine D4 receptors and effects of guanine nucleotides on [3H]raclopride binding in postmortem caudate nucleus of subjects with schizophrenia or major depression. Brain Res 1995;681:109-116.

183. Sunahara RK, Niznik HB, Weiner DM, et al. Human dopamine D1 receptor encoded by an intronless gene on chromosome 5. Nature 1990;347:80-83.

184. Sunahara RK, Guan H-C, O'Dowd BF, et al. Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D5 receptor with higher affinity for dopamine than D1. Nature 1991;350:614-619.

185. Surmeier DJ, Reiner A, Levine MS, Ariano MA. Are neostriatal dopamine receptors co-localized? Trends Neurol Sci 1993;16:299-305.

186. Szymanski S, Lieberman J, Pollack S, et al. The dopamine-serotonin relationship in clozapine response. Psychopharmacology 1993;112:S85-S89.

187. Tanaka T, Igarashi S, Onodera O, et al. Lack of association between dopamine D2 receptor gene Cys311 variant and schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:208-211.

188. Tanaka T, Igarashi S, Onodera O, et al. Association study between schizophrenia and dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:366-368.

189. Vachvanichsanong P, Sela S, Sidhu A. Absence of DA1/DA2 dopamine receptor interactions in proximal tubules of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol 1996;270:F98-F105.

190. Van Tol HHM, Bunzow JR, Guan H-C, et al. Cloning of a human dopamine D4 receptor gene with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine. Nature 1991;350:614-619.

191. Van Tol HHM, Wu CM, Guan H-C, et al. Multiple dopamine D4 receptor variants in the human population. Nature 1992;358:149-152.

192. Vedova FD, Fumagilli F, Sacchetti G, Racagni G, Brunello N. Age-related variations in relative abundance of alternative spliced D2 receptor mRNAs in brain areas of two rat strains. Mol Brain Res 1992;12:357-359.

193. Vincent SL, Khan Y, Benes FM. Cellular distribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in rat medial prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 1993;13:2551-2564.

194. Vincent SL, Khan Y, Benes FM. Cellular colocalization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in rat medial prefrontal cortex. Synapse 1995;19:112-120.

195. Wadenberg M-L. Antagonism by 8-OH-DPAT, but not ritanserin, of catalepsy induced by SCH 23390 in the rat. J Neural Transm 1992;89:49-59.

196. Wadenberg M-L, Salmi P, Jimenez P, Svensson T, Ahlenius S. Enhancement of antipsychotic-like properties of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, by the additional treatment with the 5-HT2 receptor blocking agent, ritanserin, in the rat. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1996;6:305-310.

197. Weiss D, Aizenber D, Hermesh H, Zemishlany Z, Munitz H, Radwan M, Weizman A. Cyproheptadine treatment in neuroleptic-induced akathisia. Br J Psychiatry 1995;167:483-486.

198. Wiese C, Lannfelt L, Kristbjarnarson H, et al. No evidence of linkage between schizophrenia and D3 dopamine receptor gene locus in Icelandic pedigrees. Psychiatry Res 1993;46:69-78.

199. Wiesel F-A, Norström A-L, Farde L, Eriksson B. An open clinical and biochemical study of ritanserin in acute patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 1994;114:31-38.

200. Wolkin A, Brodie JD, Barouche F, et al. Dopamine receptor occupancy and plasma haloperidol levels. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989;46:482-483.

201. Wong DF, Wagner Jr HN, Tune LE, et al. Positron emission tomography reveals elevated D2 dopamine receptors in drug-naive schizophrenics. Science 1986;234:1558-1563.

202. Wong DF, Tune L, Shaya E, et al. Dopamine receptor density measured by C-11 raclopride and NMSP in the same schizophrenic patients and normal subjects. Schizophr Res 1993;8:212 .

203. Yang L, Li T, Wiese C, et al. No association between schizophrenia and homozygosity at the D3 dopamine receptor gene. Am J Med Genet 1993;48:83-86.

204. Zawarynski P, Ng GYK, Tallerico T, Lee SP, O'Dowd BF, George SR, Seeman P. Separation of dopamine D2 receptor monomers and dimers. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1997;23:1780.

205. Zhu X, Birnbaumer L. G protein subunits and the stimulation of phospholipase C by Gs- and Gi-coupled receptors: Lack of receptor selectivity of Ga16 and evidence for a synergic interaction between Gbg and the a subunit of a receptor-activate G protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:2827-2831.


Back to Chapter

published 2000