The Dopamine Transporter: Potential Involvement in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Michael J. Bannon, Paola Sacchetti and James G. Granneman
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences
Wayne State University School of Medicine
2309 Scott Hall, 540 E. Canfield Avenue
Detroit, Michigan 48201
telephone: (313) 577-5949
fax: (313) 993-4269
e-mail: mbannon@med.wayne.edu



REFERENCES

  1. Allard PO, Marcusson JO. Age-correlated loss of dopamine uptake sites labeled with [3H]GBR-12935 in human putamen. Neurobiol Aging 1989;10:661-664.
  2. Allard PO, Rinne J, Marcusson JO. Dopamine uptake sites in Parkinsonís disease and in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Brain Res 1994;637:262-266.
  3. Amara SG, Arriza JL. Neurotransmitter transporters: three distinct gene families. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1993;3:337-344.
  4. Bannon MJ, Granneman JG, Kapatos G. The dopamine transporter. In: Bloom FE, Kupfer DJ, eds. Psychopharmacology: the fourth generation of progress. New York: Raven Press, 1995;179-188.
  5. Bannon MJ, Poosch MS, Xia Y, Goebel DJ, Cassin B, Kapatos G. Dopamine transporter mRNA content in human substantia nigra decreases precipitously with age. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:7095-7099.
  6. Bannon MJ, Whitty CJ. Age-related and regional differences in dopamine transporter mRNA expression in human midbrain. Neurol 1997;48:969-977.
  7. Berger SP, Farrell K, Conant D, Kempner ES, Paul SM. Radiation inactivation studies of the dopamine reuptake transporter protein. Mol Pharm 1994;46:726-731.
  8. Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Knee D, Tsuang MT. Family-genetic and psychosocial risk factors in DMS-III attention deficit disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiat 1990;29:526-533.
  9. Buck KJ, Amara SG. Chimeric dopamine-norepinephrine transporters delineate structural domains influencing selectivity for catecholamines and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:12584-12588.
  10. Buck KJ, Amara SG. Structural domains of catecholamine transporter chimeras involved in selective inhibition by antidepressants and psychomotor stimulants. Mol Pharm 1995;48:1030-1037.
  11. 10a. Bull PC, Thomas GR, Rommens JM, Forbes JR, Cox DW. The Wilson disease gene is a putative copper transporting P-type ATPase similar to the Menkes gene. Nat Genet 1993;5:327-337.

  12. Byerley W, Coon H, Hoff M, Waldo M, Freedman R, Caron MG, Giros B. Human dopamine transporter gene not linked to schizophrenia in multigenerational pedigrees. Hum Hered 1993;43:319-322.
  13. Byerley W, Hoff M, Holik J, Caron MG, Giros B. VNTR polymorphism for the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). Hum Molec Genet 1993;2:335.
  14. Bruss M, Hammermann R, Brimijoin S, Bonisch H. Antipeptide antibodies confirm the topology of the human norepinephrine transporter. J Biol Chem 1995;270:9197-201.
  15. Cass WA, Gerhardt GA. Direct in vivo evidence that D2 dopamine receptors can modulate dopamine uptake. Neurosci Lett 1994;17:259-63.
  16. Castillo SO, Baffi JS, Palkovits M, Goldstein DS, Kopin IJ, Witta J, Magnuson MA, Nikodem VM. Dopamine biosynthesis is selectively abolished in substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area but not in hypothalamic neurons in mice with targeted disruption of the Nurr1 gene. Mol Cell Neurosc 1998;11:36-46.
  17. Chinaglia G, Alvarez FJ, Probst A, Palacios JM. Mesostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine uptake binding sites are reduced in Parkinsonís disease and progressive supranuclear palsy: a quantitative autoradiographic study using [3H] Mazindol. Neurosc 1992;49:317-327.
  18. Ciliax BJ, Heilman C, Demchyshyn LL, Pristupa ZB, Ince E, Hersch SM, Niznik HB, Levey AI. The dopamine transporter: immunochemical characterization and localization in brain. J Neurosc 1995;15:1714-1723.
  19. Cook EH, Stein MA, Krasowski MD, Cox NJ, Olkon DM, Kieffer JE, Leventhal BL. Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene. Am J Hum Genet 1995;56:993-998.
  20. Daniels J, Williams J, Asherson P, McGuffin P, Owen M. No association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms within genes for debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) and the dopamine transporter (DAT). Am J Med Genet 1995;60:85-87.
  21. De Keyser J, Ebinger G, Vauquelin G. Age-related changes in the human nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Ann Neurol 1990;27:157-161.
  22. Donovan DM, Vanderbergh DJ, Perry MP, Bird GS, Ingersoll R, Nanthakumar E, Uhl GR. Human and mouse dopamine transporter genes: conservation of 5'-flanking sequence elements and gene structures. Mol Brain Res 1995;30:327-335.
  23. Doucette-Stamm L, Blakely DJ, Tian J, Mockus S, Mao J. Population genetic study of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). Genet Epidemiol 1995;12:303-308.
  24. Ernst M, Zametkin AJ, Matochik JA, Pascualvaca D, Jons PH, Hardy K, Hankerson JG, Doudet DJ, Cohen RM. Presynaptic dopaminergic deficits in Lesch-Nyhan disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1568-1572.
  25. Fischman AJ, Bonab AA, Babich JW, Prather Palmer E, Alpert NM, Elmaleh DR, Callahan RJ, Barrow SA, Graham W, Meltzer PC, Hanson RN, Madras BK. Rapid detection of Parkinsonís disease by SPECT with altropane: a selective ligand for dopamine transporters. Synapse 1998;29:128-141.
  26. Freed C, Revay R, Vaughan RA, Kriek E, Grant S, Uhl GR, Kuhar MJ. Dopamine transporter immunoreactivity in rat brain. J Comp Neurol 1995;359:340-349.
  27. Frost JJ, Rosier AJR, Reich SG, Smith JS, Ehlers MD, Snyder SH, Ravert HT, Dannals RF. Positron emission tomographic imaging of the dopamine transporter with 11C-WIN 35,428 reveals marked declines in mild Parkinsonís disease. Ann Neurol 1993;34:423-431.
  28. Fujiwara Y, Yamaguchi K, Tanaka Y, Tomita H, Shiro Y, Kashihara K, Sato K, Kuroda S. Polymorphism of dopamine receptors and transporter genes in neuropsychiatric diseases. Eur Neurol 1997;38:6-10.
  29. Fumagalli F, Gainetdinov RR, Valenzano KJ, Caron MC. Role of dopamine transporter in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity: evidence from mice lacking the transporter. J Neurosc 1998;18:4861-4869.
  30. Gainetdinov RR, Fumagalli F, Jones SR, Caron MG. Dopamine transporter is required for in vivo MPTP neurotoxicity: evidence from mice lacking the transporter. J Neurochem 1997;69:1322-1325.
  31. Gelernter J, Vandenbergh D, Kruger SD, Pauls DL, Kurlan R, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK, Uhl GR. The dopamine transporter protein gene (SLC6A3): primary linkage mapping and linkage studies in Tourette syndrome. Genomics 1995;30:459-463.
  32. Gill M, Daly G, Heron S, Hawi Z, Fitgerald M. Confirmation of association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a dopamine transporter polymorphism. Molec Psychiat 1997;2:311-313.
  33. Gillis JJ, Gilger JW, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Attention deficit disorder in reading disabled twins: evidence for a genetic etiology. J Abnorm Child Psych 1992;20:343-348.
  34. Giros B, Caron MG. Molecular characterization of the dopamine transporter. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1993;14:43-49.
  35. Giros B, El Mestikawy S, Bertrand L, Caron MG. Cloning and functional characterization of a cocaine-sensitive dopamine transporter. FEBS Lett 1991;295:149-154.
  36. Giros B, El Mestikawy S, Godinot N, Zheng K, Han H, Yang-Feng T, Caron MG. Cloning, pharmacological characterization, and chromosome assignment of the human dopamine transporter. Mol Pharm 1992;42:383-390.
  37. Giros B, Jaber M, Jones SR, Wightman RM, Caron MG. Hyperlocomotion and indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Nat 1996;379:606-612.
  38. Giros B, Wang YM, Suter S, McLeskey SB, Pifl C, Caron MG. Delineation of discrete domains for substrate, cocaine, and tricyclic antidepressant interactions using chimeric dopamine-norepinephrine transporters. J Biol Chem 1994;269:15985-15988.
  39. Guttman M, Burkholder J, Kish SJ, Hussey D, Wilson A, DaSilva J, Houle S. [11C]RTI-32 PET studies of the dopamine transporter in early dopa-naive Parkinsonís disease: implications for the symptomatic threshold. Neurol 1997;48:1578-1583.
  40. Haberland N, Hetey L. Studies in postmortem dopamine uptake Ė II.Alterations of the synaptosomal catecholamine uptake in postmortem brain regions in schizophrenia. J Neural Transm 1987;68:303-313.
  41. Harrington KA, Augood SJ, Kinsbury AE, Foster OJF, Emson PC. Dopamine transporter (DAT) and synaptic vesicle amine transporter (VMAT2) gene expression in the substantia nigra of control and Parkinsonís disease. Mol Brain Res 1996;36:157-162.
  42. Higuchi S, Muramatsu T, Arai H, Hayashida M, Sasaki H, Trojanowski JQ. Polymorphisms of dopamine receptor and transporter genes and Parkinsonís disease. J Neur Transm Ė Park Dis Dement Sect 1995;10:107-113.
  43. Hitri A, Casanova MF, Kleinman JE, Weinberger DR, Wyatt RJ. Age-related changes in [3H]GBR 12935 binding site density in the prefrontal cortex of controls and schizophrenics. Biol Psychiat 1995;37:175-182.
  44. Huff RA, Vaughan RA, Kuhar MJ, Uhl GR. Phorbol esters increase dopamine transporter phosphorylation and decrease transport Vmax. J Neurochem 1997;68:225-232.
  45. Innis RB, Seibyl JP, Scanley BE, Laruelle M, Abi-Dargham A, Wallace E, Baldwin RM, Zea-Ponce Y, Zoghbi S, Wang S, et al. Single photon emission computed tomographic imaging demonstrates loss of striatal dopamine transporters in Parkinson disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:11965-9.
  46. Iversen LL. Role of transmitter uptake mechanisms in synaptic neurotransmission. Br J Pharmacol 1971;41:571-591.
  47. Jeon B, Kim JM, Jeong JM, Kim KM, Chang YS, Lee DS, Lee MC. Dopamine transporter imaging with [123I]-b -CIT demonstrates presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage in Wilsonís disease. J Neurol, Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;65:60-64.
  48. Jinnah HA, Wojcik BE, Hunt M, Narang N, Lee KY, Goldstein M, Wamsley JK, Langlais PJ, Friedmann T. Dopamine deficiency in a genetic mouse model of Lesch-Nyhan disease. J Neurosc 1994;14:1164-1175.
  49. Jones SR, Gainetdinov RR, Wightman RM, Caron MG. Mechanisms of amphetamine action revealed in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. J Neurosc 1998;18:1979-1986.
  50. Joyce JN, Smutzer G, Whitty CJ, Myers A, Bannon MJ. Differential modification of dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNAs in midbrain of subjects with Parkinsonís, Alzheimerís with parkinsonism, and Alzheimerís disease. Mov Disord 1997;12:885-897.
  51. Kawarai T, Kawakami H, Yamamura Y, Nakamura S. Structure and organization of the gene encoding human dopamine transporter. Gene 1997;195:11-18.
  52. Kelsoe JR, Sadovnick AD, Krisrbjarnarson H, Bergesch P, Mroczkowski-Parker Z, Drennan M, Rapaport MH, Flodman P, Spence MA, Remick RA. Possible locus for bipolar disorder near the dopamine transporter on chromosome 5. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:533-540.
  53. King N, Bassett AS, Honer WG, Masellis M, Kennedy JL. Absence of linkage for schizophrenia on the short arm of chromosome 5 in multiplex canadian families. Am J Med Genet 1997;74:472-474.
  54. Kitayama S, Shimada S, Xhu H, Markham L, Donovan DM, Uhl GR. Dopamine transporter site-directed mutations differentially alter substrate transport and cocaine binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:7782-7785.
  55. Kitayama S, Wang JB, Uhl GR. Dopamine transporter mutants selectively enhance MPP+ transport. Synapse 1993;15:58-62.
  56. Kilty JE, Lorang D, Amara S. Cloning and expression of a cocaine-sensitive rat dopamine transporter. Science 1991;254:578-579.
  57. Kouzmenko AP, Pereira AM, Singh BS. Intronic sequences are involved in neuronal targeting of human dopamine transporter gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1997;240:807-811.
  58. Le Couteur DG, Leighton PW, McCann SJ, Pond SM. Association of a polymorphism in the dopamine-transporter gene with Parkinsonís disease. Movement Disord 1997;12:760-763.
  59. Leighton PW, Le Couteur DG, Pang CC, McCann SJ, Chan D, Law LK, Kay R, Pond SM, Woo J. The dopamine transporter gene and Parkinsonís disease in a Chinese population. Neurol 1997;49:1577-1579.
  60. Lester HA, Mager S, Quick MW, Corey JL. Permeation properties of neurotransmitter transporters. Ann Rev Pharm Tox 1994;34:219-249.
  61. Little KY, Carroll FI, Butts JD. Striatal [125I]RTI-55 binding sites in cocaine-abusing humans. Prog Neuro-Psychopharm Biol Psychiat 1998;22:455-466.
  62. Little KY, Kirkman JA, Carroll FI, Clark TB, Duncan GE. Cocaine use increases [3H]WIN 35428 binding sites in human striatum. Brain Res 1993;628:17-25.
  63. Lorang D, Amara SG, Simerly RB. Cell-type-specific expression of catecholamine transporters in the rat brain. J Neurochem 1994;14:4903-4914.
  64. Ma SY, Ciliax BJ, Stebbins G, Jaffar S, Joyce JN, Cochran EJ, Kordower JH, Mash DC, Levey AI, Mufson EJ. Dopamine transporter immunoreactive neurons decrease with age in human substantia nigra. Comp Neurol 1998, in press.
  65. Malison RT, McDougle CJ, van Dick CH, Scahill L, Baldwin RM, Seibyl JP, Price LH, Leckman JF, Innis RB. [123I]b -CIT SPECT imaging of striatal dopamine transporter binding in Touretteís disorder. Am J Psychiat 1995;152:1359-1361.
  66. Malison RT, Best SE, van Dick CH, McCance EF, Wallace EA, Laruelle M, Baldwin RM, Seibyl JP, Price LH, Kosten TR, Innis RB. Elevated striatal dopamine transporters during acute cocaine abstinence as measured by [123I]b -CIT SPECT. Am J Psychiat 1998;155:832-834.
  67. Maloteaux JM, Vanisberg MA, Laterre C, Javoy-Agid F, Agid I, Laduron PM. [3H]GBR 12935 binding to dopamine uptake sites: subcellular localization and reduction in Parkinsonís disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. Eur J Pharm 1988;156:331-340.
  68. McCann UD, Wong DF, Yokoi F, Villemagne V, Dannals RF, Ricaurte GA. Reduced striatal dopamine transporter density in abstinent methamphetamine and methcathinone users: evidence from positron emission tomography studies with [11C]WIN-35,428. J Neurosc 1998;18:8417-8422.
  69. McGeer PL, McGeer EG, Suzuki JS. Aging and extrapyramidal function. Arch Neurol 1977;34:33-35.
  70. Meiergard SM, Patterson TA, Schenk JO. D2 receptors may modulate the function of the striatal transporter for dopamine: kinetic evidence from studies in vitro and in vivo. J Neurochem 1993;61:764-767.
  71. Meister B, Elde R. Dopamine transporter mRNA in neurons of the rat hypothalamus. Neuroendocr 1993;58:388-95.
  72. Miller GW, Staley JK, Heilman CJ, Perez JT, Mash DC, Rye DB, Levey AI. Immunochemical analysis of dopamine transporter protein in Parkinsonís disease. Ann Neurol 1997;41:530-539.
  73. Milner HE, Beliveau R, Jarvis SM. The in situ size of the dopamine transporter is a tetramer as estimated by radiation inactivation. Biochem Biophys Acta 1994;1190:185-187.
  74. Mitsuhata C, Kitayama S, Morita K, Vandenbergh D, Uhl GR, Dohi T. Tyrosine-533 of rat dopamine transporter: involvement in interactions with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and cocaine. Mol Brain Res 1998;56:84-88.
  75. Murray AM, Weihmueller FB, Marshall JF, Hurtig HI, Gottleib GL, Joyce JN. Damage to dopamine systems differs between Parkinsonís disease and Alzheimerís with parkinsonism. Ann Neurol 1995;37:300-312.
  76. Nakamura Y, Koyama K, Matsushima M. VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) sequences as transcriptional, translational, or functional regulators. J Hum Genet 1998;43:149-52.
  77. Nakatome M, Honda K, Tun Z, Kato Y, Harihara S, Omoto K, Misawa S, Gerelsaikhan T, Nyamkhishig S, Dashnyam B, Batsuuri J, Wakasugi C. Genetic polymorphism of the 3í VNTR region of the human dopaminergic function gene DAT1 (human dopamine transporter gene) in the Mongolian population. Hum Biol 1996;68:509-15.
  78. Nelson N. The family of Na+/Cl- neurotransmitter transporters. J Neurochem 1998;71:1785-1803.
  79. Nirenberg MJ, Chan J, Pohorille A, Vaughan RA, Uhl GR, Kuhar MJ, Pickel VM. The dopamine transporter: comparative ultrastructure of dopaminergic axons in limbic and motor compartments of the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosc 1997;17:6899-6907.
  80. Nirenberg MJ, Vaughan RA, Uhl GR, Kuhar MJ, Pickel VM. The dopamine transporter is localized to dendritic and axonal plasma membranes of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosc 1996;16:436-447.
  81. Norlen M, Allard P. Reduction in number of dopamine uptake sites but unchanged number in piperazine-acceptor/CYP450IID6 binding sites in the human caudate nucleus in aging. Neurosc Lett 1996;209:161-164.
  82. Parsian A, Zhang ZH. Human dopamine transporter gene polymorphism (VNTR) and alcoholism. Am J Med Genet 1997;74:480-482.
  83. Parsons LH, Schad CA, Justice JB Jr. Co-administration of the D2 antagonist pimozide inhibits up-regulation of dopamine release and uptake induced by repeated cocaine. J Neurochem 1993;60:376-9.
  84. Patel AP. Neurotransmitter transporter proteins: posttranslational modifications. In: Reith MEA, ed. Neurotransmitter transporters: structure, function, and regulation. Totowa: Humana Press, 1997;241-262.
  85. Persico AM, Vandenbergh DJ, Smith SS, Uhl GR. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphisms are not associated with polysubstance abuse. Biol Psychiat 1993;34:265-267.
  86. Plante-Bordeneuve V, Taussig D, Thomas F, Said G, Wood NW, Marsden CD, Harding AE. Evaluation of four candidate genes encoding proteins of the dopamine pathway in familial and sporadic Parkinsonís disease: evidence for association of a DRD2 allele. Neurol 1997;48:1589-1593.
  87. Povlock SL, Amara SG. The structure and function of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin transporters. In: Reith MEA, ed. Neurotransmitter transporters: structure, function, and regulation. Totowa: Humana Press, 1997;1-28.
  88. Pristupa ZB, McConkey F, Liu F, Man HY, Lee FJS, Wang YT, Niznik HB. Protein kinase-mediated bidirectional trafficking and functional regulation of the human dopamine transporter. Synapse 1998;30:79-87.
  89. Rocha BA, Fumagalli F, Gainetdinov RR, Jones SR, Ator R, Giros B, Miller GW, Caron MG. Cocaine self-administration in dopamine-transporter knockout mice. Nat Neurosc 1998;1:132-137.
  90. Ritz MC, Lamb RJ, Goldberg SR, Kuhar MJ. Cocaine receptors on dopamine transporters are related to self-administration of cocaine. Science 1987;237:1219-1223.
  91. Rudnick G. Mechanisms of biogenic amine neurotransmitter transporters. In: Reith MEA ed. Neurotransmitter transporters: structure, function, and regulation. Totowa: Humana Press, 1997;73-100.
  92. Sacchetti P, Brownschidle LA, Granneman JG, Bannon MJ. Characterization of the promoter region of the human dopamine transporter. Soc Neurosc Abstr 1998;24:241.1.
  93. Sakurada MO, Palmer TD, Gage FH. Regulation of dopaminergic differentiation in stem cells derived from adult brain by the SHH and Nurr1 signaling pathway. Soc Neurosc Abstr 1998;24:313.13.
  94. Sanghera MK, Manaye KF, Liang CL, Iacopino AM, Bannon MJ, German DC. Low dopamine transporter mRNA levels in midbrain regions containing calbindin. Neurorep 1994;5:1641-1644.
  95. Sano A, Kondoh K, Kakimoto Y, Kondo I. A 40-nucleotide repeat polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter gene. Hum Genet 1993;91:405-406.
  96. Saucedo-Cardenas O, Quintana-Hau JD, Le WD, Smidt MP, Cox JJ, De Mayo F, Burbach JPH, Conneely OM. Nurr1 is essential for the induction of the dopaminergic phenotype and the survival of ventral mesencephalic late dopaminergic precursor neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:4013-4018.
  97. Scherman D, Desnos C, Darchen F, Pollak P, Javoy-Agid F, Agid I. Striatal dopamine deficiency in Parkinsonís disease: role of aging. Ann Neurol 1989;26:551-557.
  98. Seeman P, Niznik HB. Dopamine receptors and transporters in Parkinsonís disease and schizophrenia. FASEB J 1990;4:2737-2744.
  99. Shimada S, Kitayama S, Lin CL, Patel A, Nanthakumar E, Gregor P, Kuhar M, Uhl GR. Cloning and expression of a cocaine-sensitive dopamine transporter complementary DNA. Science 1991;254:576-578.
  100. Singer HS, Hahn IH, Moram TH. Abnormal dopamine uptake sites in postmortem striatum from patients with Touretteís syndrome. Ann Neurol 1991;30:558-562.
  101. Sonders MS, Zhu SJ, Zahniser NR, Kavanaugh MP, Amara SG. Multiple ionic conductances of the human dopamine transporter: the actions of dopamine and psychostimulants. J Neurosc 1997;17:960-974.
  102. Sora I, Wichems C, Takahashi N, Li XF, Zheng Z, Revay R, Lesch KP, Murphy DL, Uhl GR. Cocaine reward models: conditioned place preference can be established in dopamine- and in serotonin-transporter knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:7699-7704.
  103. Staley JK, Hearn WL, Ruttenber AJ, Wetli CV, Mash DC. High affinity cocaine recognition sites on the dopamine transporter are elevated in fatal cocaine overdose victims. J Pharm Exp Ther 1994;271:1678-1685.
  104. Staley JK, Talbot JZ, Ciliax BJ, Miller GW, Levey AI, Kung MP, Kung HF, Mash DC. Radioligand binding and immunoautoradiographic evidence for a lack of toxicity to dopaminergic nerve terminals in human cocaine overdose victims. Brain Res 1997;747:219-229.
  105. Tissingh G, Bergmans P, Booij J, Winogrodzka A, van Royen EA, Stoof JC, Wolters EC. Drug-naive patients with Parkinsonís disease in Hoehn and Yahr stages I and II show a bilateral decrease in striatal dopamine transporters as revealed by [123I]b -CIT SPECT. J Neurol 1998 ;245:14-20.
  106. Uhl GR. Hypothesis: the role of dopaminergic transporters in selective vulnerability of cells in Parkinsonís disease. Ann Neurol 1998;43:555-560.
  107. Uhl GR, Walther D, Mash D, Faucheux B, Javoy-Agid F. Dopamine transporter messenger RNA in Parkinsonís disease and control substantia nigra neurons. Ann Neurol 1994;35:494-498.
  108. Usdin TB, Mezey E, Chen C, Browstein MJ, Hoffman BJ. Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:11168-11171.
  109. Vandenbergh DJ, Persico AM, Hawkins AL, Griffin CA, Li X, Jabs EW, Uhl GR. Human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) maps to chromosome 5p15.3 and displays a VNTR. Genomics 1992;14:1104-1106.
  110. Vandenbergh DJ, Persico AM, Uhl GR. A human dopamine transporter cDNA predicts reduced glycosilation, displays a repetitive element and provides racially-dimorphic Taq I RFLPs. Mol Brain Res 1992;15:161-166.
  111. van Dick CH, Seibyl JP, Malison RT, Laruelle M, Wallace E, Zoghbi SS, Zea-Ponce Y, Baldwin RM, Charney DS, Hoffer PB, Innis RB. Age-related decline in striatal dopamine transporter binding with Iodine-123-b -CIT SPECT. J Nuclear Med 1995;36:1175-1181.
  112. Vaughan RA, Huff RA, Uhl GR, Kuhar MJ. Protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation and functional regulation of dopamine transporters in striatal synaptosomes. J Biol Chem 1997;272:15541-15546.
  113. Vaughan RA, Kuhar MJ. Dopamine transporter ligand binding domains. J Biol Chem 1996;271:21672-21680.
  114. Volkow ND, Ding YS, Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Hitzemann R, Smith G, Fields SD, Gur R. Dopamine transporters decrease with age. J Nuclear Med 1996;37:554-559.
  115. Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Logan J, Schlyer D, MacGregor R, Hitzemann R, Wolf AP. Decreased dopamine transporters with age in healthy human subjects. Ann Neurol 1994;36:237-239.
  116. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fischman MW, Foltin RW, Fowler JS, Abumrad NN, Vitkun S, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Pappas N, Hitzemann R, Shea CE. Relationship between subjective effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter occupancy. Nat 1997;386:827-830.
  117. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Hitzemann R, Chen AD, Dewey SL, Pappas N. Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects. Nat 1997;386:830-833.
  118. Waldman ID, Rowe DC, Abramowitz A, Kozel ST, Mohr JH, Sherman SL, Cleveland HH, Sanders ML, Gard JM, Stever C. Association and linkage of the dopamine transporter gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: heterogeneity owing to diagnostic subtype and severity. Am J Hum Genet 1998;63:1767-1776.
  119. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Fischman M, Foltin R, Abumrad NN, Logan J, Pappas NR. Cocaine abusers do not show loss of dopamine transporters with age. Life Sci 1997;61:1059-1065.
  120. Westermark K, Tedroff J, Thuomas KA, Hartvig P, Langstrom B, Andersson Y, Hornfeldt K, Aquilonius SM. Neurological Wilson's disease studied with magnetic resonance imaging and with positron emission tomography using dopaminergic markers. Mov Disord 1995;10:596-603.
  121. Wilson JM, Kalasinky KS, Levey AI, Bergeron C, Reiber G, Anthony RM, Schmunk GA, Shannak K, Haycock JW, Kish SJ. Striatal dopamine nerve terminal markers in human, chronic methamphetamine users. Nat Med 1996;2:699-703.
  122. Wilson JM, Levey AI, Bergeron C, Kalasinsky K, Ang L, Peretti F, Adams VI, Smialek J, Anderson WR, Shannak K, Deck J, Niznik HB, Kish SJ. Striatal dopamine, dopamine transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter in chronic cocaine users. Ann Neurol 1996;40:428-439.
  123. Wolraich ML, Hannah JN, Pinnock TY, Baumgaertel A, Brown J. Comparison of diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in a county-wide sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych 1996;35:319-324.
  124. Wong DF, Harris JC, Naidu S, Yokoi F, Marenco S, Dannals RF, ravert HT, Yasters M, Evans A, Rousset O, Bryan RN, Gjedde A, Kuhar MJ, Breese GR. Dopamine transporters are markedly reduced in Lesch-Nyhan disease in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:5539-5543.
  125. Wong DF, Ricaurte G, Grunder G, Rothman R, Naidu S, Singer H, Harris J, Yokoi F, Villemagne V, Szymanski S, Gjedde A, Kuhar M. Dopamine transporter changes in neuropsychiatric disorders. Adv Pharm 1998;42:219-223.
  126. Xia Y, Goebel DJ, Kapatos G, Bannon MJ. Quantitation of rat dopamine transporter mRNA: effects of cocaine treatment and withdrawal. J Neurochem 1992;59:1179-1182.
  127. Zelnik N, Angel I, Paul SM, Kleinman JE. Decreased density of human striatal dopamine uptake sites with age. Eur J Pharm 1986;126:175-176.
  128. Zetterstrom RH, Solomin L, Jansson L, Hoffer BH, Olson L, Perlmann T. Dopamine neuron agenesis in Nurr1-deficient mice. Science 1997;276:248-250.
  129. Zhu SJ, Kavanaugh MP, Sonders MS, Amara SG, Zahniser NR. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits uptake, currents and binding associated with the human dopamine transporter expressed in Xenopus Oocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;282:1358-1365.

Return to Chapter

published 2000